U6 haplogroup mitochondrial DNA project - Results

Map of mtDNA Haplogroup U6:

I get all the U6 entries in FTDNA U6 mtDNA group, Mitosearch and GenBank data bases, and i put every entry on a google map to see the geographic distribution of U6 haplogroup. I give also the U6 migrations on the same map.


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U6 tree:
  • U6 is defined by the mutations 3348 and 16172, its coalescence age is about 36,200 years ago
  • U6a is defined by the mutations 7805, 14179, 16219 and 16278, its coalescence age is about 26,900 years ago
  • U6b is defined by the mutations 9438, 16219 and 16311, its coalescence age is about 12,600 years ago
  • U6d is defined by the mutations 4336, 12501, 14518, 16219 and 16311, its coalescence age is about 14,200 years ago
  • U6c is defined by the mutations 150, 437, 793, 3688C, 4965, 5081, 11013, 13879, 15244, 16169 and 16189, its coalescence age is about 9,700 years ago
using Soares mutation rate on the entire molecule about 1 substitution every 3.624 years with a nonlinear correction for Purifying Selection.

U6a1 tree:

U6a1 is defined by the mutation 14927, and can be separate into two main groups:

  • U6a1a is defined by the mutations: 3969, 4172A, 11938, 16183C, 16189 and 16239.
  • U6a1b is defined by the mutation: 16235.

We can estimate the coalescence age of the haplogroups:

  • U6a1: 18,000 years ago
  • U6a1a: 2,800 years ago (Morocco, Algeria, Portugal, Italy, England and Germany)
  • U6a1b: 16,400 years ago (Algeria, Morocco, Portugal and Italy)
U6a2 tree:

U6a2 is defined by the mutations 103, 15626 and 16189. U6a2a is defined by the mutations 6359 and 11204.

We can estimate the coalescence age of the haplogroups:

  • U6a2: 19,000 years ago (Ethiopia, Palestine, Portugal, Spain, Italy, Sweden and Netherlands)
  • U6a2a: 12,700 years ago (Ethiopia and Netherlands)
U6a3 tree:

U6a3 is defined by the mutations 15790 and 16189 and can be separate into two main groups:

  • U6a3a is defined by the mutation 4820.
  • U6a3b is defined by the mutations: 146, 152, 185, 188, 1211, 11268, 13431 and 15634.

We can estimate the coalescence age of the haplogroups:

  • U6a3: 18,500 years ago
  • U6a3a: 9,000 years ago (Portugal, Finland and Bulgaria)
  • U6a3b: 3,000 years ago (Morocco, Turkey and Portugal)

U6a4 tree:

U6a4 is defined by the mutations 150, 12246, 13674, 14215, 15862 and 16134.

We can estimate the coalescence age of the haplogroup:

  • U6a4: 10,600 years ago (Iraq and Central Italy)

U6a5 tree:

U6a5 is defined by the mutations 3591, 7642, 13590 and 15927. U6a5a is defined by the mutation 11590.

We can estimate the coalescence age of the haplogroups:

  • U6a5: 12,200 years ago (Nigeria, Tunisia, Sicily, Central Italy and England)
  • U6a5a: 8,800 years ago (Nigeria, Tunisia and England)

U6a6 tree:

U6a6 is defined by the mutations 8407A, 8557C, 9779, 10700, 11734 and 13440.

We can estimate the coalescence age of the haplogroup:

  • U6a6: 10,600 years ago (Tunisia and Morocco)

U6a7 tree:

U6a7 is defined by the mutation 15043 and can be separate into two groups:

  • U6a7a is defined by the mutations: 152, 794A, 1193, 1692T, 5471, 8473, 15530 and 15632.
  • U6a7b is defined by the mutations: 195, 198, 709, 1842, 7735 and a reverse mutation at 16219.
U6a7a is separated into two groups:
  • U6a7a1 is defined by the mutation 5120.
  • U6a7a2 is defined by the mutation 14034 and a reverse mutation at 16278.

U6a7a1 includes three clusters:
  • U6a7a1a is defined by the mutations 2672 and 11929 and is an acadian cluster. The samples are all from Canada and are descendants of Edmée or Catherine Lejeune natives of France. Edmée Lejeune married at La Hève, Canada with François Gautreau about 1636, and Catherine Lejeune married at Port Royal, Canada with François Savoye about 1654.
  • U6a7a1b is defined by the mutation 150 and is a sephardic cluster. The samples are from Spain, Italy, Germany, Poland and Ukraine.
  • U6a7a1c is defined by the reverse mutation 152. The samples are from Italy and Germany.

We can estimate the coalescence age of the haplogroups:

  • U6a7: 30,000 years ago
  • U6a7a: 7,700 years ago (North-west Africa and Europe)
  • U6a7a1: 4,700 years ago (North-west Africa and Europe)
  • U6a7a1a: 500 years ago (Acadian cluster from France and Canada)
  • U6a7a1b: 1,500 years ago (Sephardic cluster from Spain, Italy, Germany, Poland and Ukraine)
  • U6a7a1c: 3,500 years ago (Italy and Germany)
  • U6a7a2: 4,600 years ago (Morocco and Europe)
  • U6a7b: 12,700 years ago (Canary Islands, France and England)
U6b tree:

U6b is defined by the mutations 9438 and 16311. U6b1 is defined by the mutations 2352, 9738, 15431 and 16163. U6b2 is defined by the mutations 4062, 12535, 13637 and 15355. U6b3 is defined by the mutations 5442 and 16051.

We can estimate the coalescence age of the haplogroups:

  • U6b: 12,600 years ago (Senegal, Morocco, Tunisia and Spain)
  • U6b1: 4,000 years ago (Canary islands and Spain)
  • U6b2: 6,100 years ago (Morocco, Spain and Poland)
  • U6b3: (Spain and Portugal)

U6b1 is present in Canary islands and Spain. The first inhabitants of Canary islands were the Guanches who shared a common origin with the Berbers of northern Africa. The first signs of settlement in Canary islands are about 2,000 or 2,500 years ago. So U6b1 emerge in North Africa 4,000 years ago, and then migrated from North Africa to Canary islands 2,500 years ago.

U6d tree:

U6d is defined by the mutations 4336, 12501, 14518 and 16311. U6d1 is defined by the mutations 4454, 14470 and 16261.

We can estimate the coalescence age of the haplogroups:

  • U6d: 14,200 years ago (Portugal and Ethiopia)
  • U6d1: 5,700 years ago (Morocco, Portugal, Italy and England)
U6c tree:

U6c is defined by the mutations 150, 437, 793, 3688C, 4965, 5081, 11013, 13879, 15244, 16169 and 16189. U6c1 is defined by the mutations 15553 and 16129.

We can estimate the coalescence age of the haplogroups:

  • U6c: 9,700 years ago (Morocco and France)
  • U6c1: 5,200 years ago (Canary islands and Italy)