There are two things to watch if you want to understand your DNA. Most important are two types of mutations that are printed on the Y-chromosome. If you can follow the changes that are printed on the Y-chromosome that your ancestors have bequeathed, you will learn a lot about your ancestors.
1. The first mutations to watch are the known SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) or Haplogroup. For example SNP L22.
2. Other mutations that are monitored are named STRs (Short Tandem Repeats) or Haplotypes. These haplotypes are expressed by markers. This gives following figure as: 12 15 13 12 29 22 10 11 12 16 11 15
If haplogroups give us change for a large group of individuals, haplotypes give us much more information about our ancestors specify. You can read a lot of things with a reading of markers that are characteristic to your DNA. This reading has a name "modal haplotype".
Now it is time to explore your Haplogroup and your Modal Haplotype.
The story of The DNA of our ancestors begin with a super volcano. The Toba supereruption occurred between 69,000 and 77,000 years ago at Lake Toba (Sumatra, Indonesia), and it is recognized as one of Earth's largest known eruptions. The related catastrophe theory holds that this supervolcanic event plunged the planet into a 6 to 10 year volcanic winter, which resulted in the world's human population being reduced to 10,000 or even a mere 1,000 breeding pairs, creating a bottleneck in human evolution. Some researchers argue that the Toba eruption produced not only a catastrophic volcanic winter but also an additional 1,000-year cooling episode.
Migration after Toba
It is currently not known where human populations were living at the time of the eruption. The most plausible scenario is that all the survivors were populations living in Africa, whose descendants would go on to populate the world.
Recent analyses of mitochondrial DNA have set the estimate for the major migration from Africa from 60,000 to 70,000 years ago, around 10—20,000 years earlier than previously thought, and in line with dating of the Toba eruption to around 66,000 to 76,000 years ago. During the subsequent tens of thousands of years, the descendants of these migrants populated Australia, East Asia, Europe and finally the Americas.
Map of early human migrations(The latest data are too recent to have been placed on this graph. I have placed to give you an overview of human migration.)
It has been suggested that nearby hominid populations, such as Homo erectus soloensis on Java, and Homo floresiensis on Flores, survived because they were upwind of Toba.
In the midst of this last great cold spell, very roughly about 25,000 years ago, a little baby boy was born with a mutation in his Y-chromosome. No one knew anything about it, least of all the little boy; it didn’t affect his life at all. But geneticists have come to recognize the mutation which took place at the time of this little boy’s conception—marker M170—as the beginning of a new and distinct gene group, called a “Haplogroup,” and lettered as the letter “I”.
Y-DNA Haplogroup I represents nearly one-fifth of the population of Europe. It can be found in the majority of present-day European populations; the greatest density to be found in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Norway, Sweden, Serbia, Sardinia, Denmark and Germany. The haplogroup is almost non-existent outside of Europe or Asia Minor, suggesting that it arose in Europe.
After the birth of the haplogroup I
The earth has experienced warm period. But this improvement in the climate would not endure. Early occupation of Europe was arrested then reversed, as another prolonged period of severe cold gripped the continent—the last Ice Age. It continued for thousands of years; it’s most severe stage is called the Last Glacial Maximum, or LGM, which encompassed the furthest extent of the ice sheets upon the land.
This image shows Palaeolithic Europe 18 000 years ago in the grip of the last ice age. Glacial ice 2km thick covers much of Northern Europe and the Alps. Sea levels are approx. 125m lower than today and the coastline differs slightly from the present day. For example, Britain and Ireland would have been connected to continental Europe
(not shown on map).
The air would have been on average 10-12 degrees cooler and much more arid. In between the ice and the tree line, drought-tolerant grasses and loess dunes would have dominated the landscape.
Mankind could do little more than survive, and was forced to retreat south to a few scattered enclaves in Asia and Europe. Scientists speculate that human enclaves favored the high ground because it provided commanding views of the territory below and maximized sunlight by avoiding the shadows of the valleys. At this time our species numbered in the hundreds of thousands, but the earth could not support an increase in Homo sapiens sapiens. The emphasis was merely on survival. “During this time, it isn’t possible to venture too far north within Europe as the ice sheets cover much of northern Europe and tundra exists for several miles beneath them. The humans in this part of the world are relatively recent visitors and are not so adapted to the colder climes as are the people of Siberia. Thus, they take refuge below the tree line which at 18,000 years ago, the time of the last glacial maximum, extends across southern Europe. The refugia of Iberia(R1b), the Balkans(I) and Ukraine(R1a) allow people to ‘wait out’ the worst of the ice-age.”
This map shows the spread of Haplogroups R1b, I and R1a (12,000 years ago). These three major haplogroups account for approx 80% of Europe's present-day population.
If we fast forward to 12 000 years ago as shown here, the ice has retreated and the land has become much more supportive to life. Many animal species have returned to inhabit the land, although the snake, harvest mouse and mole never made it as far as Ireland before the land bridges re-flooded (ever wondered why there are no snakes in Ireland?).
Today distribution of Haplogroup I-M170.
This image gives us more information about the haplogroup I. The image allows us to see the subclades that are downstream.
There is a good possibility that there was a large extinction in our ancestors 5000 years after the founding of I - haplogroup.
Today, the genetic tree of humanity indicates there were only 8 males living at that time who were contributors do ALL of today's I-haplogroup population
The 8 contributing males living 5000 years after the founding of I-haplogroup were certainly not the total population of living I-haplogroup males of that time. But this suggests how precarious that haplogroup was for a long period of its early existence.
The first mutation that gives rise to subclade I2 appeared 7,750 years ago*.
The original breakup of I into multiple surviving branch lines occured in SE Europe. I2 has members from Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Greece as well as elsewhere in Europe. Our ancestors separated about that date.
During the Neolithic period, pre-I1 and I1 people were part of the sucessive Ertebølle culture (5300-3950 BCE) and Funnelbeaker culture (4000-2700 BCE). The Corded Ware period (3200-1800 BCE) marks the arrival of the Indo-European R1a people from the Ukrainian steppes.
The megalithic structures (5000-1200 BCE) of Europe were built by I1 people.
I1 is identified by at least 15 unique mutations, which indicates that this lineage has been isolated for a long period of time, or experienced a serious population bottleneck. Although the first mutation splitting I1 away from I2 may have arisen as long as 7,750 years ago*, people belonging to this haplogroup all descend from a single man who lived less than 5,000 years ago. This corresponds to the arrival of the Indo-European, suggesting that a high percentage of the indigenous I1 men could possibly have been killed by the new immigrants.
The first mutation that gives rise to subclade I1 appeared 3,500 years ago*.(1,500 years before Christ)
The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of I1 lived from 3,500 years ago somewhere in the far northern part of Europe, perhaps Denmark, according to Nordtvedt. His descendants are primarily found among the Germanic populations of northern Europe and the bordering Uralic and Celtic populations, although even in traditionally German demographics I1-M253 is overshadowed by the more prevalent Haplogroup R.
Haplogroup I1-M253 is the most common I subclade. It is found mostly in Scandinavia and Northern Germany, where it can represent over 35% of the population. Associated with the Norse ethnicity, it is found in all places invaded by the ancient Germanic tribes and the Vikings.
Density map of HG I1. The darkest areas approach only around 45% of the population.
It should be noted that the concentration of Haplogroup I1 is very similar to the Viking settlements and the Viking expansion.
Sublade L22 was born 3,000 years ago*(1,000 years before Christ). I1d is a north European clade, but it is not as north in origin as the Scandinavian haplogroup, although that's where a large fraction of the I1d ended up.
I1d-L22 was probably born early in the history of I1 in the very south of Scandinavia or in the very north of Germany --- Baltic coast, Schleswig or Jutland? The origin of this halogroup is assumed to be located in the province of Schleswig* on the German/Danish border.
Here's a chart I received from a member of the group I1d. It's a search that took data on FTDNA and Ken Nordvedt.
All you'll find in this section comes from the work of Professor Ken Nordvedt. Thank you very much at this man who has allowed our haplogroup to make a giant leap in knowledge of our ancestors.
Haplogroups are good but, Professor Ken Nordvedt managed to identify mutations much closer to us using the other mutations was called STRs (Short Tandem Repeats) or haplotypes.
Here is an example of what you can do with your markers. The dates of appearance of certain markers correspond to the date of onset of your haplogroup.
You can confirm your membership in I1 by yourself. If DYS455 = 8 it is more than 99 percent sure you are I1. You then look at 388 (is it 14?) then 437 (is it 16?) to strengthen that up to 99.9 percent, etc.
If you want, you can also test it here test your Haplogroup
You can do the same thing for the mutation L22. This mutation is turning out to be universal in the Norse and ultraNorse clades of I1 with 10,13 at 511 and 462; while L22- is turning out for the I1-Anglo Saxon with 9,12 at 511,462.
For those with the mutation L22, we can divide them into groups. Here are their names:
L22-NuN14 (Norse ultra-Norse)
L22-uN1 (ultra-Norse type 1)
L22-uN2 (ultra-Norse type 2)
L22-uN9 (ultra-Norse type 9)
L22-uN9a (ultra-Norse type 9a)
M253-uN1315 (ultra-Norse 13 15)
It gives you the Time of the (probably) Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) from the mutation that was found in the DNA of your ancestors. TMRCA is the point where the two pedigrees intersect. If the two kits were brothers, the TMRCA would be their father; if they were first cousins, the TMRCA would be their grandfather, if they were second cousins, the TMRCA would be their great-grandfather, and so on.
Here's a summary list( made 1 May 2010* ) of clade ages that go back to their TMRCAs in Y-haplogroup I. These dates were obtained by calculating the TMRCA.
M253 - ASgen --- 3500 years (I1 was born)
L22 - Norse --- 3000 years (I1d was born)
L22 – NuN14 --- 2750 years
P109 --- 2730 years
L22 – uN1 --- 2550 years
L22– uN2 --- 1570 years
L22 – uN9 --- 1800 years
L22 – uN9a --- 1450 years
L22 – Bothnia --- 1850 years
You can see that these changes came after the L22 mutation (I1d) that appeared 3000 years ago.
The group M253-Anglo-Saxon-generic were the first to carry the mutation known as I1. Later a group called Norse was born. The group L22 - Norse were the first to carry the mutation known as I1d.
We do not know the precise birthplace of these divisions, but we know their places of greatest concentration today. That's the best we can do yet.
Here is a description of subclades that contain the mutation M253 (I1).
Be ware of the fact that DYS462 and DYS511 are two markers that mutate very rarely.
M253-AS; "AS" for Anglo Saxon
DYS462 = 12, 511 = 9
Dominates south of the Baltic and North Seas. Highest frequency in Denmark, NW Germany, Netherlands area. As falls off as percentage of total population in Germany as you move south and east. Probably has its hotspot in Schleswig-Holstein.
The L22-N subclade is younger than the M253-AS and derivative of it.
"N" for Norse DYS462 = 13, 511 = 10
The N branch gets stronger as you move Denmark to Sweden / Finland to Norway. Show even more dramatic concentration in Norway / Sweden.
N is only weakly present south of the Baltic Sea or North Sea.
Today the largest concentration of subclade uN2 is highly concentrated in Norway (and among some Swedes). The other branch of ultra-Norse seems to be more distributed in Sweden and Denmark, with a Few Stragglers further south.
L22-Bothnian or L22-N-Finn (Sweden/Finland)
Now take a look at how to find these subclades.
Subclades of I1d
Both markers DYS511 and DYS462 are the basis of a strong bifurcation in the interior of subclade I1. The ancestors further south (Anglo Saxon) carry the markers value
DYS511 = 9
DYS462 = 12
Those who carry the value for the markers
DYS511 = 10
DYS462 = 13
have ancestors who come from areas further north and are classified as Norse / ultra Norse.
Only the persons who are classified as "Bothnian" still possess the value 9 for DYS511 and are in the subclade I1d.
Bothnian or L22-N-Finn has it's peak gradient in Finland.
Here is what Ken Nordtvedt said on this subject: “I1d-Bothnian needs the unusual 10 at DYS439, usually a 14-14 at DYS385, 23 at DYS390, 15 at DYS464d, and the clashing 9,13 at DYS511 and 462”
Why Ken Nordtvedt has used the name Bothnian? “
I am having a complaint that I should not use the word Bothnia to describe this variety. I had called it Finn, but there are enough examples also being found in Sweden I thought it appropriate to name it after the Gulf of Bothnia which is between these two places. The I1d in Finland in any event probably got there from Sweden in both historic and ancient times.”
Here is what Ken Nordtvedt said to a groupmember on this subject: “ It would be nice to get 223A to test for DYS462. You not only are in the I1a-Bothnia variety, I also have you in the tiny "transitional" category. You are 13 at 462 but 9 at 511. There are only 2 or 3 haplotypes out of my entire I1d collection which are known to violate the 9,12 versus 10,13 rule at 511, 462.
Norse (N) Has it's peak gradient in Sweden. (Found in smaller quantities in countries such as Finland, Norway, and Denmark)
Ultra-Norse (uN) = Northern Scandinavia, has it's peak gradient in Norway. (Found in smaller quantities in countries such as Sweden and Denmark)
Here is what Ken Nordtvedt said on this subject:
“The ultraNorse I1d haplotypes are tabulated and fully defined from the SMGF database of 43 marker haplotypes. The I1d haplotypes with 14,23,14-15, 13 at DYS19, 390, 385, 462 (plus supporting repeat values at other markers) number close to one hundred from that database and show a strong geographical preference for originating in northern Scandinavia, especially Norway. By the time you get down to Germany this type of I1d is hardly present at all, but another type of I1d haplotype is found there in the hundreds. Or these observations can be put in terms of ratios of the two types of I1d from the various continental countries, and then a comparison can be made to the ratio of the I1d types as found in Iceland --- either YHRD or an academic paper like Helgason. The Icelandic ratio looks like Norway, not like Germany or Denmark or even Sweden.”
Norse ultra-Norse 14 (NuN14) (Peak gradient; America (of British decent) Origin: Denmark as an educated guess)
DYS462=13, same as N & UN
DYS511=10, same as N & UN
DYS617=14, (hence NuN (14)
Kittler low-high 14,15
Little is known about this haplotype, further testing will help with its understanding.
What it takes to get an analysis done well. An analysis that will enable to know the most about your DNA test.
What it takes to have a test that could be complete.
Full 67 markers
Kittler (Advanced Test)
DYS461 (Advanced Test)
DYS462 (Advanced Test)
DYS635 (Advanced Test)
Kittler test A good test that is recommended is the Kittler test for those whose DYS385a/b values are different. The normal test can't distinguish DYS385a from DYS385b, so they carry them in the lowest order followed by the highest value (which means that you do not know which one is a and b. The Kittler test distinguish DYS385a from DYS385b and that can be important to place you in de right subclade.
The most recent information on haplogroups found.
For haplogroup I1d we can say that now began to rub haplogroups dates we could find with the modal haplotype. It becomes more and more encouraging.
However if the two techniques overlap in dates. We can not say that we will see exactly the same data because according to Ken Nordvedt would be surprising if this would be the same person or appeared STR mutation (modal haplotype) is also the same one where the SNP mutation (haplogroup) appeared . But if we can compare these two point, we could have a lot more precision on our ancestors.
In the WTY-project, FTDNA discovered eight new subclades for haplogroup I1d (L22+). It appears that all of these SNPs will be downstream of L22 (see news).
L205 SNP available on FTDNA (August 18, 2010)
L258 SNP available on FTDNA (August 18, 2010)
L287 SNP available on FTDNA (August 18, 2010)
L296 SNP available on FTDNA (August 18, 2010)
L300 SNP available on FTDNA (August 18, 2010)
L813 SNP available on FTDNA (November, 2011)
L137.2 SNP available on FTDNA (November, 2011)
L840 SNP available on FTDNA (November, 2010)
Modal haplotype (L22-Bothnia) = 1850 years and Haplogroup L258+ = 1680 years. Both mutations have appeared in Finland.
L287 and L296 seems to be a sub clade of L258
Only people who are L22+ (Y-haplo I1d) and are Bothnian are be advised to do the L287 and L296 SNP-test.
L205+ people are L22-N and till now from the Netherlands. The MRCA is about 1200 years.
The WTY-project (Walk through the Y)
This test help us to find other information to advance knowledge about the subclade I1d.
If you want to go further and allow that haplogroup I1 is based on solid foundations. To whomever wishes to help give our I1 haplogroup the potential of robust subclades, for everyone, I ask to please consider the 'Walk through the Y' project. It is hosted by FTDNA like any other test at Walk through the Y
•FTDNA reserves the right to limit the number of participants according to the production capacity.
•The GRC laboratory director decides if and when an application will be accepted based on the scientific importance.
•Cost: US$ 750 per participant.
•Turnaround time: 6 weeks after fresh swabs have been received at FTDNA
* Information that we have been placed in this place come from the work of Professor Ken Nordvedt. Here is his website