Haplogroup D is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (direct maternal line) haplogroup.
Haplogroup D likely arose between the Caspian Sea and Lake Baikal 60,000 years before the present. It is a descendant of haplogroup M.
It is found in Northeast Asia (including Siberia). Its subclade D1 (along with D2 and D4) is one of five haplogroups found in the indigenous peoples of the Americas, the other being A,B,C and X. Haplogroup D is also found quite frequently in central Asia, where it makes up the second most common mtDNA clade (after H). Haplogroup D also appears at low frequency in northeastern Europe and southwestern Asia.
Studies of Korean mtDNA lineages have shown that there is a high frequency of Haplogroup D4, which is the modal mtDNA haplogroup among Siberians. Haplogroup D4 is also the modal mtDNA haplogroup among Koreans.
Haplogroup D constitutes 5/100 of 1% of the mtDNA testing population at FTDNA. This is partly due to the fact that those of European ancestry tend to test DNA much more than other persons do, at least at FTDNA
There are two principal branches:
· D4 (3010,8414,14688): Spread all over East Asia, Southeast Asia, Siberia, Central Asia and indigenous peoples of the Americas.
· D5’6 (16189): Mainly in East Asia and Southeast Asia. Lower in Siberia, Central asia and East India.
Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser have suggested a phylogenetic tree of haplogroup D
in Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation
and subsequent published research. To view it click here. (http://www.phylotree.org/tree/subtree_D.htm)
AFANASIEVNA, ALVARADO, BABA, BRAVO, BUCKER, CHEN, DOIRAN, GALVAN, HUNG, LANGINEN, MORITA, NAKATA, NISHIKUBO, RODRIGUEZ, SIDLAUSKAS, TUPCHIEVA.
· Ian Logan’s Mitochondrial DNA Site (http://www.ianlogan.co.uk/mtDNA.htm)
· Spread of Haplogroup D, from National Geographic. https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/atlas.html?card=mm007
1. National Geographic. https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/atlas.html?card=mm007
2. Correcting for Purifying Selection: An improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock Supplementary Material. 2009. pp 89. http://download.cell.com/AJHG/mmcs/journals/0002-9297/PIIS0002929709001633.mmc1.pdf
3. Comas D. et al. Admixture, migrations, and dispersals in Central Asia: evidence from maternal DNA lineages. European Journal of Human Genetics, 2004.
4. East Asian mtDNA haplogroup determination in Koreans: haplogroup-level coding region SNP analysis and subhapologroup-level control region sequence analysis.
5. Tanaka M et al. Mitochondrial Genome Variation in Eastern Asia and the Peopling of Japan. Genome Res. 2004:14:1832-1850.
6. van Oven, M et Kayser M. Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human Mutation 2008:30(2):E386-394.