A4 mtDNA- Background



A4, A4 mtDNA, East Asia, haplogroup A, Indian, Jewish A, mtDNA A4, mtDNA Haplogroup A4, Native American


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mtDNA Haplogroup A4

The modern geography of A4 and its subclades spans Eastern Eurasia and the Americas. This project was formed to study and better understand mitochondrial haplogroup A4.



  • Derenko, M., Malyarchuk, B., Grzybowski, T., Denisova, G., Dambueva, I., Perkova, M., Dorzhu, C., Luzina, F., Lee, H. K. K., Vanecek, T., Villems, R., and Zakharov, I. (2007). Phylogeographic analysis of mitochondrial DNA in northern asian populations. American journal of human genetics, 81(5):1025-1041.
  • Dulik, M. C., Zhadanov, S. I., Osipova, L. P., Askapuli, A., Gau, L., Gokcumen, O., Rubinstein, S., and Schurr, T. G. (2012). Mitochondrial DNA and y chromosome variation provides evidence for a recent common ancestry between native americans and indigenous altaians. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 90(2):229-246.
  • Gokcumen, O., Dulik, M. C., Pai, A. A., Zhadanov, S. I., Rubinstein, S., Osipova, L. P., Andreenkov, O. V., Tabikhanova, L. E., Gubina, M. A., Labuda, D., and Schurr, T. G. (2008). Genetic variation in the enigmatic altaian kazakhs of South-Central russia: Insights into turkic population history. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 136(3):278-293.
  • Phillips-Krawczak, C., Devor, E., Zlojutro, M., Moffat-Wilson, K., and Crawford, M. H. (2006). MtDNA variation in the Altai-Kizhi population of southern siberia: a synthesis of genetic variation. Human biology, 78(4):477-494.
  • Pilipenko, A. S., Molodin, V. I., and Romashchenko, A. G. (2012). Mitochondrial DNA of a late neolithic woman from kaminnaia cave (gorny altai). Russian Journal of Genetics: Applied Research, 2(3):214-221.
  • Starikovskaya, E. B., Sukernik, R. I., Derbeneva, O. A., Volodko, N. V., Ruiz-Pesini, E., Torroni, A., Brown, M. D., Lott, M. T., Hosseini, S. H., Huoponen, K., and Wallace, D. C. (2005). Mitochondrial DNA diversity in indigenous populations of the southern extent of siberia, and the origins of native american haplogroups. Annals of human genetics, 69(Pt 1):67-89.
  • Sukernik, R. I., Volodko, N. V., Mazunin, I. O., Eltsov, N. P., Dryomov, S. V., and Starikovskaya, E. B. (2012). Mitochondrial genome diversity in the tubalar, even, and ulchi: Contribution to prehistory of native siberians and their affinities to native americans. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 148(1):123-138.

Journals and Newsletters

  • American Journal of Human Genetics
  • Annals of Human Genetics
  • European Journal of Human Genetics
  • Family Tree DNA Newsletter: Facts & Genes
  • Family Tree DNA Newsletter: Facts & Genes Archives
  • Genome Research
  • Human Genetics
  • Journal of Genetic Genealogy
  • Society for Molecular Biology


General Fund

Current balance: $462.00

Type Amount Date Donor Note KitNum Donation Type
Credit $10.00 9/4/2013 S Sayers Thanks Roberta   Honor
Credit $20.00 9/2/2013 Jane In honor of those who came before us and who will now have a place to be known and remembered. Can't wait to hear of your A4 success!   Memory Of
Credit $20.00 7/28/2013 Jane Findley Honoring Roberta Estes in seeking and finding A4! Keep up the great work, #2 of 3. Best, Jane   Honor
Credit $60.00 7/17/2013 Juanita G. Delgado     Unknown
Debit $129.00 7/12/2013     N110907 Unknown
Credit $129.00 7/12/2013 Albert R. Benigni Jr Donation is for the A4a haplogroup project.   Individual
Debit $129.00 7/11/2013     298041 Unknown
Debit $129.00 7/11/2013     201330 Unknown
Debit $54.00 7/10/2013     298041 Unknown
Debit $178.00 7/10/2013     213436 Unknown
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Project Stats

Statistic Type Count
Big Y 6
Combined GEDCOMs Uploaded 8
DISTINCT mtDNA Haplogroups 24
DISTINCT Y-DNA Confirmed Haplogroups 17
DISTINCT Y-DNA Predicted Haplogroups 0
Family Finder 58
Genographic 2.0 Transfers 15
Maternal Ancestor Information 70
mtDNA 78
mtDNA Full Sequence 69
mtDNA Plus 75
mtDNA Subgroups 20
Paternal Ancestor Information 63
Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups 10
Total Members 101
Unpredicted Y-DNA Haplogroups 0
Unreturned Kits 9
Y-DNA Deep Clade (After 2008) 1
Y-DNA Deep Clade (Prior to 2008) 1
Y-DNA Subgroups 0
Y-DNA111 11
Y-DNA12 28
Y-DNA25 25
Y-DNA37 25
Y-DNA67 19