T1 mtDNA

mt-haplogroup T1
  • 1341 members

About us

This project is for anyone belonging to mtDNA Haplogroup T1. Nearly 10% of Europeans can trace their maternal ancestor to Haplogroup T.

If you belong to subclade T2, please join the T2 project instead.
If you are defined as T only, please also join the T mtDNA other (not T1 or T2) project.

Note: You have to give the administrators Limited or Full access to be a part of the project. Without that you can not be grouped and we can not help. 

If you do not have a mtDNA-test, there is no point in joining this project. If you are tested T1 at 23andMe or Geno, we still recommend that you do the mtDNA-test here at FTDNA, which analyses the complete mitochondrial DNA, and not just a few SNPs. 

Subclades and Coding Region results

T1 consist of many branches, subgroups, often called subclades. The subclades are given names with numbers and letters to show how they branch out. 

The naming is based on the mtDNA Phylotree and in the project we also use names by Yfull's T1 tree. When we project admins identify specific mutations that can identify a new branch, we giv it a new preliminary name.

T1a1 is the by far largest group, and there are hundreds of sequences that are T1a1* root with identical SNPs (results). This sequence is considered to be ca 7500 years old, with a Most Recent Common Ancestor woman around 4700 years ago (according to Yfull). 

T1a1 has a large number of subclades, and only a few of them are named as yet.

The T1-project will assign members to subclades according to these research results. However, without the full mitochondrial sequence (mtFull, FMS) results it may not be possible to put your results into a subgrouping other than T1. All new tests are mtDNA full/complete tests, as FTDNA stopped selling the small HVR-tests some years ago. 

If you have done a Full Sequence test (FMS) it is helpful for us if you open up your Coding Region results to be viewed by project administrators. It is your choice whether you permit us to look at your FMS results, but these are most often necessary to assign you to subclades. Only in very rare cases do these reveal any potential medical issues, and most testers choose to include these for mitochondrial DNA-project administrators. Your results, of course, will remain absolutely confidential. To open these:

  1. log in with your kit number and password
  2. clicj your name in the upper right hand corner to find Settings, and: Privacy & Sharing
  3. find the T1-project on the list
  4. tick/check the box to show CR-results for the T1-project
  5. click "save" at the bottom of the page

Ancestral Information

mtDNA is inherited strictly through the direct maternal line.
To learn more about the origins of the various subclades of mt-haplogroup T, it is important that all T1-members fill in their ancestral information under Plot Ancestral Location. Enter full name, appr years of birth/death, place, county and country. If unknown because of adoptions or other, please explain under "maternal ancestor" in "User Preferences". Also note that your direct maternal ancestor is the name of your mother's mother's mother etc, through a female line only - it is always a woman. Please also plot the location of this direct maternal ancestor on the map.

We will be updating the "country of origin" if entered in your user information on the mtDNA results webpage. If you have questions, feel free to contact the group administrators.

Connecting to other mtDNA T members

There is a Facebook mtDNA T-discussion group where anyone can sign up, share and ask questions.

Learn more

If genealogical DNA testing is new to you, then you might find it useful to review some of the information provided on the ISOGG Wiki, click here.

There are also some free webinars about genealogical DNA testing that you can view and/or participate in here.

Contribute to Research

Have you done the Full Mitochondrial Sequence (FMS)? Are you still “just” T, T1, T2 – or other udefined groups? Maybe no one has done any research on just your specific mtDNA mutations yet.

For the scientists to evaluate all possible SNPs found in your sequence and define new haplogroups/subclades, they need access to more data.

a) Donate to GenBank

Everyone with a Full Sequence test (FMS, FGS, Full, “Mega”) can donate resultats to GenBank and contribute to research.


You need to log in and download your mtDNA results as FASTA-file.
Send it to Ian Logan, who will help you to continue the process.

Detailed description here: Ian Logan's website.

b) Donate your sequence to mtDNA-research via FTDNA

Testers who have done the mtDNA full sequence test (FMS) at FTDNA are asked to fill in a “New Survey”.

Fill in countries of origin, languages etc for your ancestors.

If you already donated to GenBank please also fill in GenBank accession number.

Then they ask permission to use your results in research of new haplogroups, and to be allowed to release your sequence with national origin to the public GenBank database. This happens if they use your sequence in a future scientific paper.


You will contribute to the discovery of further subclades of mt-DNA.
Results will be accessible to researchers worldwide. Your results are anonymous, only the contact person at GenBank/FTDNA will know who you are.

Behar et al published a paper in 2012 based on donated sequences.