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General discussion of DNA results takes place at the Yahoo group called Stewart-DNA, at

Since November 2010, Y-DNA results in the Stewart Project have been grouped at two different levels.

1.     Haplogroup and Subclade.

The major grouping is by Haplogroup, and Subclade within haplogroup.  People in different haplogroups or subclades cannot be closely related. Men in different major groups are unlikely to have a most recent common ancestor (MRCA) within the last 10,000 years (for major haplogroups) or within 5,000 years or so for subclades within a haplogroup.

If you share a haplogroup or subclade with a person of interest, it is likely that your Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA) lived within the last 5,000 years or so.

Results for testers for whom we have not yet found a match, or have too few markers tested to allow reliable matching, will be placed in one of the Unassigned groups.

Haplogroups are determined by a small number of mutations on the Y chromosome, known as Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), or Unique Event Polymorphisms (UEPs). Haplogroups in green have been confirmed by SNP testing.  Haplogroups in red have been predicted by Family Tree DNA based on the individual's STR results and can be confirmed by a Deep Clade SNP test.

2.     Closely related group.

To share an MRCA within recorded history, FTDNA calculates that you need a match within the following degrees of genetic distance (GD), i.e. the number of marker mismatches:

12 markers tested:  0,1

25 markers tested: 0, 1, 2

37 markers tested: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4

67 markers tested: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

The closer the match, the closer the relationship is likely to be – more or less!  This is only a rough guide, and other information should be factored into the match wherever possible.

 “Within recorded history” is a very loose term. For Scotland, the ancestral home for many of the Stewarts, this would be since about 1100AD.

Current Y-DNA groupings (June 2011) are:

E Group Type 1: Haplogroup E: Robert Stewart, b1757, Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland

E Group: Haplogroup E: Unassigned

G Group Type 1: Haplogroup G: John Stewart Snr, c1750-1818, Darlington, SC

G Group: Haplogroup G: Unassigned

I Group : Haplogroup I

I1 Group: Haplogroup I1

I2a Group: Haplogroup I21

I2b1 Group Type 1: Descended from the Stewards of Jedworth, ancestors of the Earls of Galloway

I2b1 Group Type 2: I2b1a1 (M223+, L126+, L137+) Isles-Scot clade

I2b1 Group Type 3: I2b1c (M223+, P78+)

I2b1 Haplogroup: I2b1 (Unassigned)

J1 Group: Haplogroup J1

J2 Group: Haplogroup J2

N Group : Haplogroup N

R1a Group: Haplogroup R1a

R1b Group Type 1: Scots Modal line (R1b-Pict, the 'Scots Cluster')

An important subgroup of R1b1b2, the Scots Modal is represented by a signature which has been attributed to Colla Uais, progenitor of the Dalriadic royal house, predecessor to the medieval kingdom of Scotland.  Also known as the Dalriadic modal, Scots-R1b, Scots47, Scots Cluster and R1b-Pict, it is represented (for the first 12 markers) by


Update: Feb 2013: SNP L1335 has been found to represent the Scots Cluster. 

It can be predicted from the following STR markers : 391<=10, 449>=30, 444>=11, 413a<=22, 531>=12 ,GataH4=12, (YCAIIb=24/22) {DF13*}.

R1b Group Type 11: Scots Modal line (R1b-Pict, the 'Scots Cluster') Probably McCrae

R1b Group Type 1a: Scots Modal line: Abel Stewart

R1b Group Type 1b: Scots Modal line: John Stewart, Macon County, NC, 1740-60

Administrator Kathi Bobb’s Stewart family has been traced back to John Stewart of Macon County North Carolina. John had a son Noah who was born in 1785. We tested descendants of three of Noah's sons. The results showed that these three descendants had a common ancestor. We also tested a descendant of Jacob Stewart who was believed to be Noah's brother. This descendant’s result matches the others 25/25 indicating a common ancestor. I am pleased to say that over 25 years of genealogy research has now been scientifically proven through the DNA study.

R1b Group Type 1c: Scots Modal: Samuel and Lydia Stewart, Rowan, NC, Descendant of Dr John Stewart

R1b Group Type 2: Ancient Stewarts: Descended from High Stewards of Scotland

The Red Group. The earliest ancestor with known descendants in this line was Alexander Stewart (1214-1283) 4th High Steward of Scotland. He probably had a Y-DNA signature like QHV9S at Ysearch.

A smart researcher in the Project L21Plus list has looked at the QHV9S (royal and ancient Stewart) signature and recognised that it can be defined by 3 particular DYS values, each of which is off-modal from the Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype for R1b.  These are GATAH4=10, 406S1=11, 565=11. He found these in 5 people who had tested L21+ (R1b1b2a1b5) and matched QHV9S closely, and 3 of them are Stewarts in the red group. All of the Stewarts in the current red group and its related subgroups have all three marker values. I believe the 10, 11, 11 definition for GATAH4, 106S1, 565, is an excellent indicator for descendants of the Stewart High Stewards of Scotland. Researchers in the L21Plus Project refer to this marker set as the 'Royal Stewart' signature, but I prefer the term Ancient Stewart.

Extension to the Ancient Stewart definition: DYS406S1=12 is now included, but only in the presence of GATAH4=10 and 565=11.

Most of the members of this group also match the WAMH quite closely (see the WAMH subclade below for a definition) but by no means all WAMH matches are in the Red Group.

Most of the members of this group have the DYS464 signature 14-15-17-17.

The English Royal Stuart line is marked by the value DYS464=14-15-16-17, although that value is not uniquely diagnostic of descent from a royal Stuart, as it appears to have arisen on several separate occasions among the Stewarts; once in King Charles II of England or a near ancestor of his (as all of his known descendants carry that value) but also in several other individuals who do not descend from that line.  A small subgroup of the Ancient Stewarts, the English Royal Stuart line contains the English descendants of Henry Darnley, heir to the Earl of Lennox, who married Mary Queen of Scots and whose son James I and VI inherited the English crown after the death of Queen Elizabeth I.

As at April 2014 the groupings within R1b Group Types 2xxx are in a state of flux, as new SNP results are changing the picture on a daily basis. See the Y-results pages for details.

R1b Group Type 2001: Ancient Stewarts. S781-. Descended from James, 5th HS.

R1b Group Type 2002: Ancient Stewarts. S781+. Descended from Sir John of Bonkyl. 

R1b Group Type 201: Ancient Stewarts: Probably descended from the line of King Robert II.

R1b Group Type 202: Ancient Stewarts: Probably descended from the line of Sir John of Bonkyl.

R1b Group Type 22: Subgroup of the Ancient Stewarts (DYDYS458=16, S481=22)

R1b Group Type 23: Ancient Stewarts: Scottish line, from Kintyre

From one branch of the Lennox Stuarts, descendants of Sir John Stuart, 5th of Aubigny, son of Sir John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Lennox, these Stuarts appear to have settled in Kintyre, Argyllshire about 1625.  All men of this ancestry descend from Sir John Stewart of Bonkyle, second son of Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland.

R1b Group Type 23a: Ancient Stewarts. Corsica, probably from Sir John of Bonkyl

R1b Group Type 24: Ancient Stewarts: James Stewart, b 1720, Virginia

R1b Group Type 25: Ancient Stewarts: Stewarts of Ardsheal. 

Two Stewarts in the Ancient Stewarts (old Red Group) have known ancestry back to one of the Stewarts of Ardsheal, of the ancestral line of Stewarts of Appin. Both have 389ii=30.

R1b Group Type 26: Ancient Stewarts: William Stewart, bc 1800, Perthshire, Scotland.

R1b Group Type 27. Ancient Stewarts. William Boone Stewart, Rowan Co, NC.

R1b Group Type 28: Ancient Stewarts: Thomas, probably from Sir John of Bonkyl.

R1b Group Type 29a: Ancient Stewarts: Stewart in Kentucky? Probably from Sir John of Bonkyl.

R1b Group Type 3: John Stewart, England, 1632, to VA by 1707

The original match in this group was between two descendants who trace back to Charles Stewart born 1610. These two descendants did not know each other prior to the DNA testing and so this match was a total surprise to both of them. They are working toward nailing down the details of their relationship now. It is udeful to be able to work toward Charles Stewart b 1610 and know that many of the other Stewarts in that area have been eliminated, as it makes their genealogy efforts much more efficient and less costly.

R1b Group Type 4: Greenberry Stewart 1852, Georgia

R1b Group Type 5: Archibald Stewart, b 1632, Kintyre, Scotland

R1b Group Type 6: Paisley, Renfrew, Scotland

R1b Group Type 6a.

R1b Group Type 6b.

R1b Group Type 6c.

R1b Group Type 7: Probably Scotland

R1b Group Type 8.

R1b Group Type 9b.

R1b Group Type 9c.

R1b Group Type 9d.

R1b Group Type A1: John Stewart, ca 1725, NC.

R1b Group Type A2:

R1b Group Type A41.

R1b Group Type A5.

R1b Group Type A6. Tested L745-. Probably DF21, Little Scottish Cluster.

R1b Group Type A7.

R1b Group Type A8.

R1b Group Type A9.

R1b Group Type A91.

R1b Group Type A92.

R1b Group Type A93.

R1b Group Type X0: Wilkes.

R1b Group Type X1: Dennison.

R1b Group Type X2: Thomson.

R1b Group Type X3: Williams.

R1b Group Type X4: Coker.

R1b Subclade : R1b1a2 (M-269): Unassigned

The modal group for all R1b1a2 haplotypes is known as the WAMH (Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype) and it is the most common haplotype found among men of European ancestry. About 14 people in the middle of this group match the WAMH exactly for the first 12 markers, e.g.


R1b Subclade: R1b1a2a1a1 (R-P310)

R1b Subclade: R1b1a2a1a1a (R-S21/U106)

R1b Subclade: R1b1a2a1a1a (R-S21/U106): Probable. (492=13)

R1b Subclade: R1b1a2a1a1b (R-P312)

R1b Subclade: R1b1a2a1a1b* (R-P312, L21-, Z196-) Subgroup ROX2.

The original ROX2 cluster includes a wide variety of surnames, as it probably split from an earlier P312 clade about 800AD. It is a loose group, originally dubbed ROX2 by early DNA researcher Jim Turner.  The Stewart subgroup appears to have arisen about the year 1100AD, roughly contemporary with the early High Stewards of Scotland.  

ROX2 shares some markers values with Scots-R1b, notably 391=10, 389ii=30, 449=30. Additional ROX2 modal values are 607=14, 534=14, 717=20.

R1b Subclade: R1b1a2a1a1b3 (R-S28/U152)

Testers in this subclade exhibit the unusual YCAII values of 18-23. Testers #172561 and #167246 have a paper trail to a common ancestor, and they match other testers in the Subgroup A1.

R1b Subclade: R1b1a 2a1a1b4 (R-L21)

R1b Subclade: R1b1a2a1a1b4 (R-L21/Z253)

R1b Subclade: R1b1a2a1a1b4b (R-M222)

This is sometimes called the Northwest Irish Group. The modal haplotype of this subclade has been attributed to an Irish king from the 4th century, known as Niall of the Nine Hostages. Men in this group usually match the first 12 markers at


R1b Subclade: R1b1a2a1a1b4g (R-L21/L193) Scottish Borders

R1b Subclade: R1b1a2a1a1b4i (R-P314.2)

R1b Subclade: R1b1a2a1a1b5a (R-SRY2627)

T Group : Haplogroup T

Estimated Time Before Present (in years) when each mutation may have occurred in the R1b1a2 subclade:

M269:  6500-8500 years

    L23:  6500-8000 years

       L51:  5500-7000 years

           L11:  5000-6500 years

              U106: 4000-5500 years

                  U198:  4000-5500 years

                  L48:  2500-4000 years

                  L1: 1300-2300 years

                  L257:  1200-1800 years

              P312: 4000-5500 years

                  U152:  3500-5000 years

                     L2:  3500-4500 years

                     L20:  3000-4000 years

                     L165:  2000-3200 years

                     L4:  800-1100 years

                  L21:  3500-5500 years

                     DF41:1500-3000 years

                        L744 (Ancient Stewart): 450-850 years

                     M222: 1500-2200 years

                     L159.2: 1100-1500 years

                     L226: 1000-1250 years

                     L193:  800-1200 years


                  M153:  1300-1500 years

Tim Janzen did these calculations in October 2010 for the approximate ages of the major SNPS downstream from M269.  They are estimates of the time, in years before present (BP), when each mutation occurred, using a 30 year generation interval and John Chandler's mutation rates.