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Y-DNA Results:

Only males can test Y-DNA because it is the gene that makes a male a male. It is passed directly from father to son. Haplogroups are DNA signatures that are used to look at migrations of man. A resource on this topic is Spencer Wells, Deep Ancestry. To learn more about the haplogroups and to see research and graphics of the Y-DNA tree, go to Additional information can be found by searching the internet for the haplogroup you are interested in. Be sure to specify Y-DNA Haplogroup.

• Y-DNA Haplogroup R1b is the most prolific haplogroup in Europe and its frequency changes in a cline from west (where it reaches a saturation point of almost 100% in areas of Western Ireland) to east (where it becomes uncommon in parts of Eastern Europe and virtually disappears beyond the Middle East).

• Y-DNA Haplogroup G began about 30,000 years ago on the eastern edge of the Middle East. Members of this group lived in the Indus Valley before the expansion of Neolithic farmers into the region. After the glaciers melted the G2 lineage expanded northward and eastward to repopulate Europe and Eurasia.

mtDNA Results:

mtDNA test kits are also arranged by mtdna Haplogroups. mtDNA is passed from the female to all of her children, so both females and males have mtDNA, but males cannot pass it to succeeding generations. mtDNA Haplogroups with the same name as Y-DNA Haplogroups have no relationship with each other. An example is that mtDNA Haplogroup K has a different history from Y-DNA Haplogroup K. mtDNA Haplogroups show the deep ancestry of the tester and are described in Spencer Wells, Deep Ancestry. Descriptions are also available on the tester's personal page under mtDNA - Results. Additional information can be found by searching the internet for the haplogroup you are interested in. Be sure to specify mtDNA Haplogroup.

• mtDNA Haplogroup C evolved from Haplogroup M somewhere on the Asian steppes. About 50,000 years ago these game hunters moved north into Siberia, then migrated toward northern and central Asia. Some crossed the Bering land bridge 15-20 thousand years ago to populate both North and South America.

• mtDNA Haplogroup H (also known as Helena) comprises 40 to 60 % of the mtDNA gene pool in Western Europe and as such is considered the most successful of the mtDNA haplogroups in reproducing itself. It also comprises about 20 % of southwest Asian lineages, 15 % of central Asian lineages and 5 % of northern Asian lineages.

•mtDNA Haplogroup HV is the predecessor of Haplogroup H. Today this group ismainly found in the Near East, including Turkey, southern Russia, and Georgia.It is also seen in parts of East Africa, particularly in Ethiopia.