The REAL R1b1b2 “asterisk” project.
The goal of the R1b1b2 (P312- U106-) DNA Project is to investigate the history and distribution of the most upstream (or basal) clades of haplogroup R1b1b2. The project is open to anyone tested to be M269+ U106- P312-. You may join our project by clicking this link
This project is sometimes called the ht35 project, a legacy of its early history. The original goal of this project, when it was formed in 2007, was to facilitate the discovery of SNP markers that would help differentiate the old "ht15" type of R1b1b2 found primarily in western Europe from the "ht35" type of R1b1b2 found primarily in southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia.
The list of SNPs discovered in members of this project since then (L23, L49, L51, L277, L405, L11, P310, P311, and others) is long. These discoveries have kept us busy, not least in a need to continually update the names we use.
The data in our project demonstrate that haplogroup R1b1b2 is relatively young, with its most recent common ancestor having lived less than 7,000 years ago somewhere in southwestern Asia. Approximately 5,000 years ago R1b1b2 began to spread rapidly across Europe, where it has since gained primacy in many places, and to a lesser extent across SW Asia.
Before the advent of Y-SNP testing, and well before the discovery of detailed knowledge about the structure of haplogroup R1b, TaqI 49a,f haplotypes were used by early population geneticists. These haplotypes were determined using a now-defunct technology called RFLP.
Two particular TaqI 49a,f haplotypes have been found to be associated with what we now know to be haplogroup R1b1b2. The two haplotypes are ht15 and ht35. ht15 is most commonly found in western European R1b1b2, and most likely represents a mesolithic or neolithic population expansion in western Europe. ht35, the parent haplotype of ht15, is most commonly found in southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia. Elevated levels of ht35 have also been observed among Ashkenzi and Sephardic Jewish populations.
Here is the latest tree for our project (as of sept. 2012):
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