Y-DNA Haplogroup Q Project- Background

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Background

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Y-chromosome DNA Haplogroup Q

Y-chromosome DNA Haplogroups are based on SNPs, Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, that occur in the non recombining region of the Y-chromosome. Haplogroup Q is one of two clades within the mega-Haplogroup P. It is defined by the SNP M242. This mutation is believed to have occurred 15,000 - 25,000 years ago. Q is found in Asia, the Americas, Europe, and the Middle East.

Unraveling the mystery of Q's original migration paths is obstructed by early assumptions about its distribution. It is only in the last year or so that academic literature has begun to reflect truths that early became apparent in this project. Q-M242, like its P lineage parent, was almost surely born in South Asia. Some lineages spread to East Asia from there. It is not clear though if they traveled directly north, through the Himalaya mountains, or along the southern coastline. It is entirely possible that all paths were taken at different points in Q's history. We also know that many branches repeatedly turned west to what are now considered Europe and the Middle East.

Some of the lines that traveled to East Asia crossed over the temporary land bridge into the Americas. From recent publications, we know that this too may have been a process of multiple migrations.

Our Q ancestors took many migrations and faced life changing challenges. Similarly, we as leaders and members of this project seek together to take a journey of discovery that will change our thinking about who we are and what we understand of our past.

Y-chromosome Haplogroup Q's Phylogenetics

On May 5, 2008 Karafet 2008 was published in Genome Research. This rolled out the Y-Chromosome Consortium 2008 Tree, YCC2008. This is the scientific standard and the tree used by Family Tree DNA.

YCC 2008 Q Tree

Y-chromosome DNA Haplogroup Q's Draft Tree

In the time since the publication of Karafet 2008 many new SNPs have been discovered and the phylogenetics have changed. Below is a draft version of the tree.

Links and References

Databases

  • Family Tree DNA's open Y-chromosome Database: ySearch
  • Family Tree DNA's draft Y-chromosome Tree: Y-Tree
  • The Sorenson Family of Companies non-profit Foundation's proprietary database: SMGF Database

E-mail Lists/Forums

Journals and News Letters

  • American Journal of Human Genetics
  • Annals of Human Genetics
  • European Journal of Human Genetics
  • Family Tree DNA Newsletter: Facts & Genes
  • Family Tree DNA Newsletter: Facts & Genes Archives
  • Genome Research
  • Human Genetics
  • Journal of Genetic Genealogy
  • Society for Molecular Biology

Organizations

Please cite this site as: Rebekah Canada (2005-2013) Y-DNA Haplogroup Q, Family Tree DNA.

General Fund Donations

The Q Y-DNA Haplogroup project is a FREE public project. It is open to all who test positive for or are predicted to be positive for the M242 mutation at Family Tree DNA. Continuing research is possible thanks to many generous contributions. These contributions are used only for research. They do not go toward the time and efforts of project administration.

If you would like to contribute to the Q Y-DNA Haplogroup project, please use the link below and specify one of the following projects in the note field.

  • NEW SNP Discovery: During Walk Through the Y (WTY) testing, the project tested 23 Q-M242 men with an average SNP marker discovery rate of 3.5 per sample. In November 2013, Family Tree DNA introduced their new BIG Y product that has 30 times the Y-DNA coverage of Walk Through the Y. To date, the project has had 30 orders for BIG Y. Much more though is needed. Please consider donating to help fund this vital effort. If you would like to contribute to a specific branch, please put Siberian, East Asian, European, Native American, etc. in the comments when you donate.
  • General: This designation is for those who would like to help others (who cannot otherwise afford it) upgrade to at least 67 STR markers. Testing at 67 STR markers aids not only recent genealogical research but allows for the highest confidence in determining the age of population groups and subclades.
    • General testing of Standard STR (short tandem repeat) markers for those who cannot otherwise afford it.
  • SNP Exploration: As new SNPs are found, it is necessary to test project members to determine their frequency and distribution.
    • Testing of L191 in all Q-M346 men from the North American Southwest and Mexico.
    • Testing of L400 and L401 in all Q-M346,M3- men from the North American Southwest and Mexico.
    • Testing of L275 subclades to all men who are M378 or L275 positive.
    • Testing of L53 subclades to all men who are M346 positive.

NOTE: PayPal donation has been restored.

General Fund

Current balance: $585.04

Type Amount Date Donor Note KitNum Donation Type
Credit $375.00 4/2/2014 George Kinas Referred by Dr. Vladimir Gurianov   Individual
Credit $148.00 12/22/2013 Tim Fichtner Upgrade N34859 Fox from 12 to 67 markers   Unknown
Debit $246.00 12/2/2013     49663 Unknown
Credit $250.00 12/2/2013 All Veterans of the Vietnam War with Thanks For BIG Y Testing   Memory Of
Debit $445.00 12/2/2013     3828 Unknown
Debit $445.00 12/2/2013     63491 Unknown
Debit $445.00 12/2/2013     206661 Unknown
Credit $230.00 12/1/2013 Native Ancestors For those whose memory we seek.   Memory Of
Credit $50.00 12/1/2013 George Krakaukas BIG Y for any Q1b   Memory Of
Credit $50.00 12/1/2013 Catherine O FOULK She was Indian.   Memory Of
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Project Stats

Statistic Type Count
Big Y 32
Combined GEDCOMs Uploaded 97
DISTINCT mtDNA Haplogroups 134
DISTINCT Y-DNA Confirmed Haplogroups 18
DISTINCT Y-DNA Predicted Haplogroups 7
Family Finder 205
Genographic 2.0 Transfers 45
Maternal Ancestor Information 379
mtDNA 268
mtDNA Full Sequence 112
mtDNA Plus 201
mtDNA Subgroups 0
Paternal Ancestor Information 618
Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups 523
Total Members 782
Unpredicted Y-DNA Haplogroups 8
Unreturned Kits 3
WTY 23
Y-DNA Deep Clade (After 2008) 187
Y-DNA Deep Clade (Prior to 2008) 48
Y-DNA Subgroups 67
Y-DNA111 74
Y-DNA12 762
Y-DNA25 577
Y-DNA37 543
Y-DNA67 348