Windham Family DNA Project- Background
Windam, Windham, Windom, Windum, Winham, Wyndam, Wyndham, Wyndom, Wyndum, Wynham
(This page last updated 02 Jan 2011)
NOTE: See the menu-bar at the upper-left of this page titled ‘ABOUT THIS GROUP’. Hover/position your mouse-pointer over the words ‘ABOUT THIS GROUP’ and a sub-menu will appear on your screen that shows and then allows you to select Background, Goals, News or Results. Think of these mouse-clickable tabs as 'doors' that you can open to see additional information on this website. Just left-mouse click on any of those 'doors' on one of the sub-menus at ‘ABOUT THIS GROUP’ to go inside and see additional information.
To look at all of the Y-DNA test results for each individual Y-DNA participant, hover/position your mouse-pointer over the words 'Y-DNA Results' on the menu-bar at the upper-left of this page. With your mouse-pointer hovering/positioned over the words 'Y-DNA Results' a sub-menu will appear on your screen that shows you can select either the 'Classic' or the 'Colorized' version of the list of Y-DNA test results. Try them both, one at a time, to see which version you prefer.
This website was created to help Windhams.... The Windham Family DNA Project was created 30 May 2006 by John B. Windham of Metairie, Louisiana, in an effort to establish Y-DNA profiles of the numerous Windham (and all variant spellings and pronunciations of the surname) family groups. These profiles may enable Windham family researchers to find a common ancestor and thus connect their Windham ancestral line with one or more other DNA participants on this website. When traditional methods of research finally hit the proverbial "brick wall", a genealogical DNA test may help in identifying other branches of your family tree. The Windham Family DNA Project was created to take advantage of this relatively new scientific approach, in an attempt to determine which Windham family groups are related and approximately when they shared a common ancestor. We use the Y-chromosome DNA test for these genealogical purposes. As generally used today, DNA comparisons can only prove that two individuals are related in some manner. DNA comparisons cannot give the exact point where each individual's lineage meets that of the other person. This means that Y-DNA testing will NOT show, by name, exactly who is your ancestor. If you match someone else, it will indicate that you share a common ancestor with the person to whom you match. Depending on the number of markers tested and the number of matches, it will indicate with a certain degree of probability how long ago this common ancestor existed. By testing the Y-DNA, Windham males can determine the origin of their Windham paternal line. Note that the Y-DNA strictly checks the Windham paternal line, with no influence of any females (wives, mothers, etc) along that line. Windham (by birth) females do not receive the Y-DNA, and therefore Windham females cannot be tested for the Windham paternal line. If you are a Windham female and would like to know about your Windham paternal line, you would need to have a Windham brother or a Windham male relative from that line to be tested. A big benefit of DNA testing is determining or detecting family lines who do NOT match and cannot be related to each other. Many people spend years trying to find a connection of family lines that simply does not exist. DNA testing can quickly and decisively put an end to such fruitless efforts.
What does the acronym (initials) 'DNA' mean?..... It means DeoxyriboNucleic Acid and it is the chemical inside the nucleus of all cells that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms. For more information, left-mouse click on deoxyribonucleic acid. You also may want to listen with your own ears how to pronounce 'deoxyribonucleic acid', plus other useful and interesting information about it.
A Glossary of Words Used in Genetic Genealogy.... Get familiar with the words in the Glossary
Want to learn more about DNA and Y-Chromosome Testing? The Blair DNA Project (no known connection to our Windham family) has an excellent, easy to understand, explanation. Left-mouse click on the following hyperlink: DNA-101
Already tested by Family Tree DNA and want to join this Project (free)?...... If you have already been tested by Family Tree DNA of Houston, TX, and want to join our Windham Family DNA Project (also known as: Windham and Variants) you can do so, completely free. (You'll need your kit number and password). Left-mouse click on:-->--> FamilyTreeDNA. Then enter your DNA kit number and password into the upper right-hand corner area of the resulting page. Then left mouse-click on 'Log In'. This will bring you to your FTDNA 'personal page'. From there, left-mouse click on 'Join Projects'. The resulting page will show a list of Projects that you are eligable to join. Select the Project that you want to duplicate your DNA kit onto. Left-mouse click on your selected Project. The resulting page will give additional information on that Project. After reading that information, if you are satisfied that this is the Project that you want to join, left-mouse click on the 'join' button in the lower right-hand corner area of that page. If you have already been tested by Family Tree DNA of Houston, this is completely free to you. You just need your kit number and password. This is a special request and welcome to all the present participants on Jim Windham's discredited, unreliable, now defunct Wyndham DNA website. If you are a participant on Jim Windham's discredited, unreliable, now defunct Wyndham DNA website and want help or have questions about duplicating, or transferring your Kit results onto this, the most respected Windham Family DNA Project, contact John B. Windham at email@example.com
Windham Family DNA Project group cost for DNA test...... If you have not already been tested, the group cost for the tests of interest to the Windham Family DNA Project are:
These are the discounted Windham Group prices....prices are higher if ordered outside of the Windham Group as an individual. The shipping charge is $6 for international shipping instead of the $4 domestic fee. A Y-DNA12 marker test is considered an “entry level” test. A Y-DNA37 marker test is recommended for better results.
How many Markers to test? 12, 25, 37, 67 markers?....... A 'marker' is a physical location (locus) on the chromosome. For some additional information to help you decide how many markers to test, left-mouse click on the following hyperlink: How many markers?
If you are a new customer of Family Tree DNA (that is...you have never been tested by FTDNA before) and you would like to join (be a participant of) our Windham Family DNA Project......... Left-mouse click on the following hyperlink: Purchase a DNA kit for our Windham Family DNA Project You will get the discounted Windham Family DNA Project price by using this link.Family Tree DNA Test Kit........ See more detailed information and the collection instructions. Left-mouse click on the following hyperlink: Family Tree DNA Collection Instructions
Release Form.......... Those who choose to participate in the Windham Family DNA Project will be given the opportunity to sign (or not sign) a release form. The following clickable link will show you a copy of that release form and the information that a participant is accepting or rejecting. Signing the release form is recommended, but signing it is optional. The Release Form is your written consent that allows Family Tree DNA of Houston, TX, (FTDNA) to share your name and email address with someone who matches your genetic fingerprint exactly. Take a look at what the release form looks like by left-mouse clicking here: Release Form (A copy of this Release Form is sent with each order. There is no need to send it again if you returned your signed Release with your Kit)
Legal Issues, Privacy and Confidentiality Statement...... Learn More
After You Get Your DNA Test Results....... The first notification of test results is by e-mail directed to you and the project administrator. At the time your returned DNA sample kit was received by FTDNA you were provided with a unique personal password to use with your Kit #. This combination of ID will provide access to your "Family Tree DNA personal page" where you will be able to view all of the DNA test results that have been completed for your account. Be sure to save this ID combination as you will need to use it each time you visit your personal page . If you misplace or forget your ID and personal password, it's easy for you to get it. If you need help obtaining your forgotten personal password, contact John B. Windham at firstname.lastname@example.org
How does your DNA test results look? After your Y-DNA tests are complete, you will receive a packet of information mailed to you by Family Tree DNA of Houston, Texas. For examples and additional information about what's in this packet, left-mouse click on this hyperlink: Test Report If you belong to a Windham DNA Project, such as this one, your test results will also be posted at the 'Y-Results' tab of this Windham Family DNA Project website.
Understanding Genetic Distance in Y-DNA Testing.............. (Source: Family Tree DNA - Genealogy by Genetics, Ltd.) When comparing people’s samples in our system we show individuals who are closely matched, but not identically matched, as being different by what the Anthropologists call genetic distance. If two people were identical in all markers except they are off in one marker by 1 point, the genetic distance would be 1. If they were off at 2 different markers by 1 point in each marker, then the genetic distance of those two samples would be 2. If they were off by 2 points at one marker and 1 point in a second marker, then the genetic distance would be 3. This is called the Stepwise Model of calculating genetic distance for shallow time depths. (i.e. Genealogy not Anthropology) Some markers have shown themselves to be more volatile then others and the population geneticists have created a second model to account for these ‘aberrations’. That model is called the Infinite allele model. For markers that fall into this category, despite the fact that two people could be separated by 2 (or 3) mutations, the scientific assumption is that the change took place in a single generation (between a father and a son) and therefore it is treated as a single step, despite the fact that more then one ‘point’ separates two samples. Currently the Scientists have asked us to classify DYS 464 and YCAII a and b as following the Infinite Allele Model. Click here for a 'quick version' scientific explanation about mutation rates and methods. For more on the models used in the scientific community please see this web site built by Dr. Bruce Walsh, a scientific advisor to Family Tree DNA: models used in the scientific community by Dr. Bruce Walsh
Reading and Comparing Results in Y-DNA Testing..... Read more about it, click on this hyperlink: Reading and Comparing Results
Understanding 12, 25, 37, and 67 marker matches..... A 'marker' is a physical location (locus) on the chromosome. Left-mouse click on any of the following hyperlinks for an explanation about marker matches:
Understanding Haplogroup Descriptions......... (Source: Family Tree DNA - Genealogy by Genetics, Ltd.) A Haplogroup is a genetic population group associated with early human migrations and which can today be associated with a geographic region. Haplogroups are clusters of Haplotypes (expressed as exact or near exact 12 or 25 marker matches) that are in a tight proximity to each other. Expressed another way Haplotypes are subsets of a Haplogroup. Think of the Haplotypes as the leaves of a tree, and the Haplogroups as the limbs of a tree…in fact the Haplogroups are the limbs of the tree of Homo Sapien Sapien—our unique branch of humanity. All members of a haplogroup descend from a common distant ancestor. The Haplogroups have been crafted into what is called a Philogenetic network, and the male version can be seen here: 2008 FTDNA Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree The 2010 ISOGG (International Society of Genetic Genealogy) Tree can be viewed at: ISOGG Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2010 Please note that people in different Haplogroups cannot be related within many thousands of years, and that each male test result provides a prediction of the Haplogroup currently about 90% of the time.
The major branches of the Y-DNA Haplogroup tree are labeled A through T. These branches then have sub-branches, which may in turn have sub-branches. Following is brief information on some of the major branches of the Y-DNA Haplogroup tree:Haplogroup A (Y-DNA)
- Y-DNA12 marker test $99 (plus $4 S&H)
- Y-DNA25 marker test $124 (plus $4 S&H)
- Y-DNA37 marker test $149 (plus $4 S&H)
- Y-DNA67 marker test $239 (plus $4 S&H)
- Y-Refine12to37 test $99
- Y-Refine12to67 test $189
- Y-Refine25to37 test $49
- Y-Refine25to67 test $148
- Y-Refine37to67 test $99
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) Haplogroup A is localized mainly to Southern Africa with a small to notable presence among a few populations in East Africa. It represents the oldest and most diverse of the human Y-chromosome haplogroups. It is believed to be the haplogroup corresponding to Y-chromosomal Adam.Haplogroup B (Y-DNA)
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) Haplogroup B is localized to sub-Saharan Africa, especially to tropical forests of West-Central Africa. After Y-haplogroup A, it is the second oldest and one of the most diverse human Y-haplogroups. It was the ancestral haplogroup of modern Pygmies like e.g. the Baka and Mbuti, but also Hadzabe from Tanzania, who are often mistakenly considered as a remnant of Khoisan people in East Africa.Haplogroup C (Y-DNA)
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) Haplogroup C seems to have come into existence shortly after M168 was introduced, probably at least 60,000 years before present. Although Haplogroup C attains its highest frequencies among the indigenous populations of Mongolia, the Russian Far East, Polynesia, Australia, and at moderate frequency in the Korean Peninsula and Manchuria, it displays its highest diversity among modern populations of India, and therefore it is hypothesized that Haplogroup C either originated or underwent its longest period of evolution and diversification within India or the greater South Asian coastal region.Haplogroup D (Y-DNA)
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) D is believed to have originated in Africa some 50,000 years before present. Along with haplogroup E, D contains the distinctive YAP polymorphism, which indicates their common ancestry. Like haplogroup C, D is believed to represent a great coastal migration along southern Asia, from Arabia to Southeast Asia and thence northward to populate East Asia. It is found today at high frequency among populations in Tibet, the Japanese archipelago, and the Andaman Islands, though curiously not in India. The Ainu of Japan and the Jarawa and Onge of the Andaman Islands are notable for possessing almost exclusively Haplogroup D chromosomes, although Haplogroup C3 chromosomes also occur among the Ainu at a frequency of approximately 15%. Haplogroup D chromosomes are also found at low to moderate frequencies among populations of Central and Northeast Asia as well as the Han and Miao-Yao peoples of China and among several minority populations of Sichuan and Yunnan that speak Tibeto-Burman languages and reside in close proximity to the Tibetans. Unlike haplogroup C, it did not travel from Asia to the New World.Haplogroup E (Y-DNA)
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) This clade is divided into three haplogroups: E1, E2 and E3. E1 and E2 are found almost exclusively in Africa. E3 is further divided into the E1b1a (formerly E3a) and E1b1b (formerly E3b) haplogroups, but only E1b1b is observed in significant frequencies in Europe and western Asia in addition to mainly non-black groups within Africa. Most Sub-Saharan Africans belong to subclades of E other than E1b1b, while most non-Africans who belong to haplogroup E belong to its E1b1b subclade. Haplogroup E would appear to have arisen in Northeast Africa based on the concentration and variety of E subclades in that area today. But the fact that Haplogroup E is closely linked with Haplogroup D, which is not found in Africa, leaves open the possibility that E first arose in the Near or Middle East and was subsequently carried into Africa by a back migration.
Want to learn more about Haplogroup E? Left-mouse click on: Learn about Y-DNA Haplogroup EHaplogroup F (Y-DNA)
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) This ancient haplogroup may have first appeared in North Africa some 45,000 years before present. It is sometimes believed to represent a "second-wave" of expansion out of Africa. However, the location of this lineage's first expansion and rise to dominance appears to have been in India or somewhere close to it within South Asia or the Middle East; all of Haplogroup F's descendant haplogroups also show a pattern of radiation from South Asia (haplogroups H and K) or the Middle East (haplogroups G and IJ).Haplogroup G (Y-DNA)
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) Haplogroup G is a branch of Haplogroup F (M89), and is theorized to have originated, according to the latest thinking, in the Near East or Southern Asia, probably in the region that is now northern India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. The haplogroup began to spread with the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution, perhaps with the appearance of the early horse nomads of the Eurasian steppe.
Want to learn more about Haplogroup G? Left-mouse click on: Learn about Y-DNA Haplogroup GHaplogroup H (Y-DNA)
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) This haplogroup is found at a high frequency in India and Sri Lanka. It is generally rare outside of the Indian subcontinent but is common among the Roma people, particularly the H-M82 subgroup. It is a branch of Haplogroup F, and is believed to have arisen in India between 20,000 and 30,000 years ago. Its probable site of introduction is India since it is concentrated there, but it may also have arisen in Iran or the Middle East. It seems to represent the main Y-haplogroup of the indigenous paleolithic inhabitants of India, because it is the most frequent Y-haplogroup of lower castes and tribal populations (25-35%), especially those of Dravidian origin. On the other hand, its presence in upper castes is quite rare (ca. 10%).Haplogroup I (Y-DNA)
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) Y-DNA Haplogroup I (the letter I, not the number 1) is a European haplogroup, representing nearly one-fifth of the population. It can be found in most present-day European populations, most commonly in Scandinavia, Sardinia, and the Slavic populations of the Western Balkans in southeastern Europe. The haplogroup is almost non-existent outside of Europe, suggesting that it arose in Europe. Estimates of the age of Haplogroup I suggest that it arose prior to the Last Glacial Maximum. It may have been confined to a refuge in the Balkans during the last Ice Age, and then spread northward during the recolonization of northern Europe following the retreat of the glaciers.
Want to learn more about Haplogroup I? Left-mouse click on: Learn about Y-DNA Haplogroup IHaplogroup J (Y-DNA)
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) Haplogroup J is believed to have arisen 31,700 years ago (plus or minus 12,800 years) in the Near East (Semino et al. 2004). It is most closely related to Haplogroup I, as both Haplogroup I and Haplogroup J are descendants of Haplogroup IJ (S2, S22). Along with haplogroups G, H and K, haplogroup IJ is in turn derived from Haplogroup F. The main current subgroups J1 and J2, which now account between them for almost all of the population of the haplogroup, are both believed to have arisen very early, at least 10,000 years ago.
Want to learn more about Haplogroup J? Left-mouse click on: Learn about Y-DNA Haplogroup JHaplogroup K (Y-DNA)
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) It first appeared approximately 40,000 years ago in Iran or southern Central Asia.Haplogroup L (Y-DNA)
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) This haplogroup is associated with South Asia. It has also been found at low frequencies among populations of Central Asia, Southwest Asia, Northern Africa, and Southern Europe along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. It is a descendant haplogroup of haplogroup K, and is believed to have first appeared approximately 30,000 years ago.
Want to learn more about Haplogroup L? Left-mouse click on: Learn about Y-DNA Haplogroup LHaplogroup M (Y-DNA)
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) This haplogroup is found at various frequencies among populations of eastern Indonesia, Melanesia (including New Guinea), Micronesia, and Polynesia. The majority of males from Papua New Guinea and Melanesia carry haplogroup M chromosomes. It is a descendant haplogroup of haplogroup K, and is believed to have first appeared approximately 10,000 years ago.Haplogroup N (Y-DNA)
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) Haplogroup N is a descendant haplogroup of Haplogroup NO, and is believed to have first appeared in Southeast Asia approximately 15,000 to 20,000 years ago, during the Ice Age. It is believed to have been transported across Eurasia by small groups of males who, according to some theories, were speakers of Uralic languages. However, the Uralic hypothesis of dispersal of Haplogroup N might only be applicable to a time long after the haplogroup's origin, when more precisely defined subclades, especially N1c and N1b, had already formed.Haplogroup O (Y-DNA)
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) Haplogroup O is a descendant haplogroup of Haplogroup NO (M214), and is believed to have first appeared in Siberia or eastern Central Asia approximately 35,000 years ago. Haplogroup O shares a node in the phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosomes with Haplogroup N, which is common throughout North Eurasia.
Want to learn more about Haplogroup O? Left-mouse click on: Learn about Y-DNA Haplogroup OHaplogroup P (Y-DNA)
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) Haplogroup P is a branch of Haplogroup K (M9). It is believed to have arisen north of the Hindu Kush, in Siberia, Kazakhstan, or Uzbekistan, approximately 35,000 to 40,000 years ago. The descendant haplogroups of P include Q (M242) and R (M207).Haplogroup Q (Y-DNA)
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) Haplogroup Q is believed to have arisen in Siberia approximately 15,000 to 20,000 years ago. This haplogroup contains the patrilineal ancestors of many Siberians, Central Asians, and indigenous peoples of the Americas. Haplogroup Q Y-chromosomes are also found scattered at a low frequency throughout Eurasia. This haplogroup is diverse despite its low frequency among most populations outside of Siberia or the Americas, and at least six primary subclades have been sampled and identified in modern populations. A migration from Asia into Alaska across the Bering Strait was done by haplogroup Q populations approximately 15,000 years ago. This founding population spread throughout the Americas. In the Americas, a member of the founding population underwent a mutation, producing its descendant population defined by the M3 SNP.
Want to learn more about Haplogroup Q? Left-mouse click on: Learn about Y-DNA Haplogroup QHaplogroup R (Y-DNA)
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) Haplogroup R is believed to have originated somewhere in Northwest Asia between 30,000 and 35,000 years ago. Haplogroup R1b originated prior to or during the last glaciation, when it was concentrated in refugia in southern Europe and the Aegean. It is the most common haplogroup in Western Europe, but has been found at low frequency as far away as Iran and Korea. It is also found in North Africa where its frequency surpasses 10% in some parts of Algeria. In south-eastern England the frequency of R1b is about 70%; in parts of the rest of north and western England, Spain, Portugal, Wales and Ireland, it is as high as 90%; and in parts of north-western Ireland it reaches 98%.
Want to learn more about Haplogroup R? Left-mouse click on: Learn about Y-DNA Haplogroup RHaplogroup S (Y-DNA)
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) Haplogroup S is typical of populations of the highlands of New Guinea; it is also found at lower frequencies in adjacent parts of Indonesia and Melanesia.Haplogroup T (Y-DNA)
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) The T haplogroup is believed to have originated in Asia after the emergence of the K-M9 polymorphism (45–30 ky) (Underhill et al. 2001a). As deduced from the collective data (Underhill et al. 2000; Cruciani et al. 2002; Semino et al. 2002; present study), K2-M70 individuals, at some later point, proceeded south to Africa. While these chromosomes are seen in relatively high frequencies in Egypt, Oman, Tanzania, Ethiopia, and Morocco, they are especially prominent in the Fulbe (18% [Scozzari et al. 1997, 1999]), presenting the highest concentration of this haplogroup found so far." (J. R. Luis et al., "The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: Evidence for Bidirectional Corridors of Human Migrations") Haplogroup T is present at low levels throughout Africa, Southwest Asia, South Asia, and, at an even lower level, throughout Southern Europe. Haplogroup T-M70 has been detected in 10.4% (21/201) of Somali, 8.3% (10/121) of Omani Arab, 8.2% (12/147) of Egyptian, and 7.2% (10/139) of Iraqi males. Other regions that have been found to contain a significant proportion of haplogroup T individuals include South India (18/305 or 5.9%), United Arab Emirates (8/164 or 4.9%), Ethiopia (6/126 or 4.8%), the Wairak Bantu in Tanzania (2/43 or 4.7%), East India (14/367 or 3.8%), South Iran (4/117 or 3.4%), Turkey (13/523 or 2.5%), and the Iberian Peninsula (16/629 or 2.5%). According to data from commercial testing, Italy may have the highest frequency of haplogroup T in Europe, with as many as 3.9% of Italian males belonging to this haplogroup. In Africa, however, the major cluster remains among the Fulbe at 18%. [Scozzari et al. 1997, 1999]) Approximately 3% of Sephardi Jews and 2% of Ashkenazi Jews belong to haplogroup T. The distribution of haplogroup T in most parts of Europe is spotty or regionalized; for example, haplogroup T was found in 1.7% (10/591) of a pool of six samples of males from southwestern Russia, including Russians from Roslavl, Livny, Pristen, Repievka, and Belgorod and Kuban Cossacks from Adygea, but this haplogroup was completely absent from a pool of eight samples totalling 637 individuals from the northern half of European Russia. Among populations of India, haplogroup T has been found to be particularly common among the Bauri, a Dalit caste of fishermen in East India, and the Kurru (also known as Yerukula), a Dravidian tribe of South India. A famous member of the T haplogroup is Thomas Jefferson, 3rd President of the United States.Some of you may be interested in reading about ‘Understanding Sources, Citations, Documentation and Evaluating Evidence In Genealogy’ by Richard Pence. If so, left-mouse click on the following hyperlink: Understanding Sources, Citations, Documentation and Evaluating Evidence In Genealogy. If you want more information on understanding evidence, sources, and citations, left-mouse click here.
Want some additional reading material?.......... The information posted on this Windham Family DNA Project website, including the information available on the easy-to-access hyperlinks, may satisfy most reader's desire for DNA information. There will likely be others who will want additional information about DNA. For those who want additional reading, you may want to check these books at your local library or bookstore.
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