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They paid for DNA tests that benefit all members of our family, e.g.:
The L745 mutation is "... only seen in direct descendants of the Stewart dynasty, kings and queens who ruled first Scotland and then Great Britain and Ireland between 1371 and 1701" according to Dr. Jim Wilson of ScotlandsDNA. The International Society of Genetic Genealogists (ISOGG) positioned L745 and all descendants of the High Stewards of Scotland on the orchid colored R1b-DF41 branch of Cladogram # 1 to your right.
Walter fitz Alan STEWART (~1198-1246):
- Was the first member of this family to use the surname Stewart.
- Was the third High Steward of Scotland.
- May have had the L745 mutation first.
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Big Y and other NGS tests have begun to identify branches of this patrilineal family more reliably than Y-DNA111 and other STR tests have, e.g., only patrilineal descendants of Walter's grandson Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll (King Charles II and ~20% of us) have SNP S781. Descendants of John's eldest brother James, the 5th High Steward of Scotland (grandfather of King Robert II and ancestor of ~30% of us) do not have this SNP.
The DF41 column of Williamson's "Big Tree" displays the results of the Big Y and FullGenomes Corp. (FGC) tests of members of this family. A man's results are useless unless he can compare them to someone else's.
The tree below is the L745 part of Williamson's Y-DNA111 STR based R-L21 tree. It shows members of our family who ordered NGS tests. Please inform an administrator if all royal Stewart NGS testers are not designated. Click here for more about them.
- Blue font indicates kits not tested for SNP L745 (we assume that all descendants of the High Stewards have this mutation).
- Red lines = FTDNA's Big Y tests.
- Arrows = FGC testers. Results are slow coming & not in FTDNA's database.
- Green lines = Chromo 2 testers. Results are not included in FTDNA's database or shown in Williamson's "Big Tree". Data for new Chromo2 SNPs are now included in ISOGG's YBROWSE (a Human Y Chromosome Browser based on hg19).
The web page at http://www.isogg.org/tree/index.htm explains the meaning of the beginning letter of each SNP.
STR marker values may converge, back-mutate, or mutate too slowly to be useful. That is why ~27% of the STR marker values of two of the men listed in Table # 1 at the bottom of this page are the same even though their Most Recent Common Patrilineal Ancestor (Y-MRCA) lived ~338 KYA (some of us may not be kissing cousins). Spencer Wells used to claim that theAfrican savage from which all Homo sapiens sapiens descend lived only ~50 KYA.
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Cladogram # 1 above shows the SNP lineage of this patrilineal family from Haplogroup (HG) M207 (R) at the top, to HG R-L745 near the bottom. Click on this tree to see an updated version.
The mutation known as M207 first occurred ~27 KYA. It is in the M9 superclade of the M42 branch of cladogram # 2 to your right.
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Cladogram # 2 - The names of SNP mutations are indicated on the branches of the tree above, and the names of the HGs to which the branches of mankind belong are given at its tips, e.g., Einstein, Napoléon, Hitler and their y-MRCA are in patrilineal HG E.
Which Genetic Line Is Oldest?
Rational people understand that every lineage that descends from Adam:
- Is of the same age.
- Is as "African" as any American.
- Belongs to the same HG as Adam (all sons are in the same HGs as their fathers).
Why then did the Einsteins who founded the Y Chromosome Consortium (YCC) give the name Haplogroup A to the HG to which Adam belongs and assign to it only people who look like N64496 & 215865 (descendants of Dixie's Carolinian slaves in HG A00)? Do some racists want golem to believe that Adam looked like them even though there is no evidence that he did, and that theirs " ... are the most ancient genetic lines of all"?
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Map # 1 above accurately shows where the major Y-Chromosome haplogroups to which the YCC assigned men are most frequent. Some theories about when, why and how some of them traveled from Africa to where they live today are speculative, controversial and based on misinterpreted evidence. Hunter gatherers had good reasons for migrating and remaining wherever they did. The larger a race grew the harder it would be for a newer wave of refugees from Africa to invade, terrorize and displace it.
- "Some scientists believe that only a few people left Africa in a single migration that went on to populate the rest of the world, based in the fact that only descents of L3 are found outside Africa." The lines and arrows in the map above show their speculations about from where and to where some people who belong to these haplogroups may have migrated.
- "Other scientists have proposed a Multiple Dispersal Model, in which there were two migrations out of Africa, one across the Red Sea traveling along the coastal regions to India (the Coastal Route), which would be represented by Haplogroup M (mtDNA). Another group of migrants with Haplogroup N (mtDNA) followed the Nile from East Africa, heading northwards and crossing into Asia through the Sinai."
- The best and simplest explanation for the aforesaid migrations is that 20,000 year climatic cycles, etc. caused devastatingly long droughts, famines, and four migrations of L3 hunter gatherers out of Africa. Sahelian refugees could not enter Africa's equatorial rain forest to the south without being killed so a few healthy young couples walked eastwards until they reached the swampy, parasite infested Nile, and then along it northwards through the vast and hyper-arid Sahara desert.
- Drought ~106 KYA - The ancestors of the Australoid population left the Sahel. They settled in eastern Eurasia because Neanderthals occupied western Eurasia.
- Drought ~70 KYA - The ancestors of the Mongoloid population left the Sahel due to Toba's eruption. They drove the remnants of the devastated Australoid population to the fringes of the Far East and offshore (an alternative to the "Coastal Route" theory), and took tens of thousands of years to completely populate the rest of the vast Far East.
- Drought ~40 KYA - Part of the Semitic population left the forests of Ethiopia via the Red Sea area. The ancestors of the Crô-Magnon population left the Sahel via the Mediterranean area. Those who were less sensitive may have cannibalized and raped the non-human Neanderthal to extinction (as though they were gorillas). The mixed Crô-Magnon and Neanderthal ancestors of southern Europeans abandoned northern Europe ~20 KYA in order to survive the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the warmer forests of Mediterranean Europe. Their adaptations to the cold are why so few of their descendants can wear the same shoes and clothing as Nordics.
- Drought ~20 KYA - Celtic (R1b) and Nordic (I), "whites" are the most heat-adapted because their ancestors evolved in the hottest place on earth longer than other Eurasians (at least 120,000 years from the Eemian to the LGM). Their racial characteristics are different from those of Eurasians who evolved longer elsewhere during the last glacial period: Nordics are relatively narrow-headed, tall, slender and fair-haired. Their less hairy and pinkish skin helps to dissipate heat more quickly too. Their non-flat noses (nasal sills) helped to humidify the Sahel's dry air. The reason that this race never became cold-adapted is that after it left the Sahel most of it remained in the relatively warm Fertile Crescent until the Holocene. The Hausa and 95.5% R1b+ Ouldeme are patrilineal descendants of a part of the R1b population that never left Africa (see maps # 1 and # 2). The African parts of most Eurasian HGs (e.g., I) may be extinct.
Theories # 1 and # 2 above depend on the implausible back migration theory for why so much of the purest HG R population still lives in the Sahel. They are based on the assumption that territorial hunter-gatherers could wander about more freely than they could. Even nomadic herdsmen remained with their tribes and in their own homelands unless famine, warfare, terrorism, etc. motivated them to risk an invasion of the territory of another race. If hunter-gatherers ventured southwards across 3,000 miles of the most barren and hottest desert on earth in search of greener pastures millennia before camels were domesticated, why aren't more Eurasian HGs found in Africa?
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Map # 2
According to ISOGG, "Y-DNA haplogroup R-M207 is believed to have arisen approximately 27,000 years ago in ASIA.". "The second hypothesis, an AFRICAN origin of the M9 superclade that includes haplotype 117 would imply a subsequent impressive extinction of derivative lineages in sub-Saharan Africa ..." Haplotype 117 carries the M269 derived allele on a M207/M173 background (listed in cladograms # 1 & 2).
- Sahelian droughts and territorial neighbors DID cause "impressive extinctions" of racially hemmed in Africans during four of the coldest phases of the Last Glacial Period.
- Western civilization and Indo-European languages would not exist if a small part of the gene pool to which HG R belongs had not left Africa during the LGM. Tens of thousands of years of natural selection and evolution in the dangerous Sahel made this race fit and savage enough to compete for its survival, and to have an appearance that is quite different from human and non-human races whose ancestors evolved for tens of thousands of years longer elsewhere. Members of this race may have included other matrilineal and patrilineal HGs to which northern Europeans now belong, e.g., mitochondrial HG T (~10% of native Europeans) and y-HG I-M170 (~20% of native Europeans).
- After leaving Africa ~20 KYA part of this race remained in the area that is now called Palestine until the Holocene began because all of the parts of the Europe, Asia and Africa in which hunter-gatherers could survive for very long had been overpopulated tens of thousands of years earlier by savages who outnumbered them and who defended their own hunting grounds like ferocious lion prides. Any band of hunter-gatherers that traipsed about as though the world were a ballroom would have quickly learned that the penalty for trespassing was death (otherwise there would be only one species of mankind, and no racial diversity). Racial co-existence was not possible until civilization developed the weapons that made it possible for imperialists and their religious and secular media to exploit the entire world.
- The hunter-gatherers who remained in the arid Fertile Crescent quickly depleted its scarce game, survived by eating the seeds of grasses, and evolved into law-abiding farmers. Acute periods of desiccation throughout the interglacial known as the Holocene caused famines and motivated some farmers to immigrate into the abandoned parts of Europe from which the LGM had driven Crô-Magnons.
- Permanent settlements, law enforcement, insulation from genepools with high crime rates, selective breeding and domestication of plants, animals and themselves, etc. for many hundreds of generations made these Indo-Hittite speaking nations secure, prosperous, populous, powerful, beautiful, compassionate and human enough to:
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Why Cross the Formidable Sahara?
During the Last Glacial Period the global climate was colder so less water evaporated from the oceans and fell in the Sahel. Since the rain forest was already occupied by territorial races when the Sahelian water and food supply dwindled, part of the L3 population walked northwards across the vast Sahara desert via the Nile to Eurasia ~106 KYA, found a new homeland, and founded a new race, e.g., the Australoids (see Table #1 below).
Rainfall and the Sahelian population returned to more normal levels during every interstadial (a warm period during a glacial period). Interstadials occurred approximately every 20 thousand years due to variations in the Earth's orbit. When certain interstadials ended African haplogroups that now exist only in Eurasia were extinguished, and a few more of the strongest and bravest young couples walked across the Sahara via the Nile valley and founded a new race, e.g., the Mongoloids.
Why Does More Than One Race and Species Exist?
A race is "an interbreeding, usually geographically isolated population of organisms differing from other populations of the same species in the frequency of hereditary traits".
Distinct races may have existed before mankind left Africa's equatorial rain forest. Some savages, e.g., Bonobos and Chimpanzees could hybridize but have not done so even though they have lived there for hundreds of thousands of years.
Eurasians descend from a woman in which the mutation known as L3 first occurred. Their ancestors immigrated from the forest to the geographically isolated semi-arid African savanna called the Sahel during the hot interglacial known as the Eemian in order to prey upon herbivores (better sources of protein than those to which Pygmies have access). Races that descend from L1 and L2 may have remained in the forest because they felt safer from predators like lions there.
The racist and imperialist governments and religious, etc. media of European homelands still encourage miscegenation and immigration from less civilized parts of the world on moral grounds even though hybridization "is now discouraged due to the emphasis on conserving species and subspecies". Might one strain be able to survive interplanetary travel better than another?
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How Fair Was Adam?
The ancestors of all mankind had body hair as dark as a Bonobo's for warmth and camouflage, and skin as fair as any Nordic, sheared mammal or plucked bird.
Races that evolved after the extremely hot Eemian (~130 KYA) began had less body hair. Fair-skinned Africans who continued to live in dark forests compensated by evolving (irreversibly) dark skin for camouflage.
Australoids are darker because they evolved in Eurasian forests for tens of thousands of years after they left the Sahel and before they were driven to the fringes of Asia and its offshore islands by Mongoloids ~70 KYA.
Some "scientists" claim that races that have always lived in forests, e.g., Pygmies, evolved dark skin for protection from cancer even though the "rainforest canopy cut off almost all the ultraviolet light and prevented it from reaching the forest floor". Pygmies should be as fair as Nordics according to the vitamin D theory. That teachers have taught this nonsense to generations of Americans shows how conformist and intelligent some of them are.
The skin of the savages who emigrated from Africa's equatorial rain forest to the Sahel after the penultimate glacial period ended ~150 KYA retained their fair skin because it is better camouflage in a savannah, and reflects the heat of the sun (see how skin color affects the performance of shirtless ditch diggers of various races when the sun suddenly appears from behind the clouds on a sweltering day).
Some Fertile Crescent farmers fled from genocidal herdsmen (e.g., the Hyksos imperialists who conquered and enslaved ancient Egypt) to southern Europe and India via Anatolia ~ 4 KYA. The descendants of those that married other races (e.g., the cold-adapted Crô-Magnons) are darker, hairier, stockier, shorter, etc., than northern Europeans, and behave less like them.
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Partial tree of Indo-Hittite languages. Canaan was the father of "... Heth [ancestor of the Hittites
Branches are in order of first attestation; those to the left are Centum, those to the right are Satem. Languages in red are extinct. White labels indicate categories / un-attested proto-languages. Did this linguistic tree begin branching before or after R1b families settled in the forests of Palestine ~20 KYA?
Where did all Indo-European languages originate? "... southern Turkey, as the most plausible origin — a region that had also been proposed as the origin of Indo-European by the archaeologist Colin Renfrew, in 1987, because it was the source from which agriculture spread to Europe. ...]"
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Map # 4 - Balaresque et al. state: "The relative contributions to modern European populations of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers from the Near East have been intensely debated. Haplogroup R1b1b2 (R-M269) is the commonest European Y-chromosomal lineage, increasing in frequency from east to west, and carried by 110 million European men... The distribution of this lineage, the diversity within it, and estimates of its age all suggest that it spread with farming from the Near East. Taken with evidence on the origins of other lineages, this indicates that most European Y chromosomes descend from Near Eastern farmers... Previous studies suggested a Paleolithic origin, but here we show that the geographical distribution of its microsatellite diversity is best explained by spread from a single source in the Near East via Anatolia during the Neolithic ... in contrast, most maternal lineages descend from hunter-gatherers ..." Most Europeans have Crô-Magnon mitochondrial DNA because Neolithic farmers took the land and women of the hunter-gatherers.
According to this Wikipedia article about HG R1b1a2 (a.k.a. R-M269), "the distribution of R1b STR variance in Europe forms a cline from east to west, which is more consistent with an entry into Europe from Western Asia with the spread of farming... "The frequency is about 71% in Scotland, 70% in Spain and 60% in France. In south-eastern England the frequency of this clade is about 70%; in parts of the rest of north and western England, Spain, Portugal, Wales and Ireland, it is as high as 90%; and in parts of north-western Ireland it reaches 98%."
The FIRST Farmers
Maps # 4 & 5 - Agriculture and Indo-European languages originated in the Fertile Crescent. The places where Kassite Babylonia, Mitanni and Hatti, Egypt, and other Hamitic nations existed thousands of years ago are linquistically, religiously, and demographically different from what they used to be.
Some of the savages who emigrated from the Sahel during the LGM remained in the relatively barren Fertile Crescent and became civilized farmers because they were not welcome in the parts of Africa and Eurasia where game was more plentiful.
Droughts forced some Fertile Crescent farmers to immigrate to the abandoned forests of northern Eurasia during the Holocene and to become illiterate hunter-gatherers until northern Europe warmed up enough for farming ~5 KYA.
Dolmens and menhirs are found mostly in the parts of north western Europe where Celts lived. The largest concentrations of these monuments outside of Europe are in Israel, Syria and Western Jordan (where they and possibly bones that contain the DNA of ancient Celts are being deliberately destroyed according to this video). Can stones speak louder than words?
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From Which Race Are Blue Eyes Inherited?
According to Danish geneticist Hans Eiberg, "the mutations responsible for the blue eye color most likely originate from the Near East area or northwest part of the Black Sea region, where the great agriculture migration to the northern part of Europe took place in the Neolithic periods about 6–10,000 years ago." The mutation that causes blue eyes may even have occurred before the Y-haplogroup R1b1 and I ancestors of northern Europeans left the Sahel.
The Egyptologist Flinders Petrie and Assyriologist Archibald Henry Sayce analysed Egyptian illustrations of what they identified as Amorites (Amurru) depicted as "white skinned, blue eyed, fair haired". According to Sayce (1889):
The Amorites... were a tall, handsome people, with white skins, blue eyes and reddish hair, all the characteristics, in fact, of the white race.Sayce further discovered a painting in a tomb (No. 34) at Thebes, belonging to the Eighteenth Dynasty which illustrates an Amorite chief with "white skin and red-brown hair". Henry George Tomkins (1897) an Exeter clergyman and member of the Royal Archaeological Institute also wrote the Amorites were blue eyed and fair haired. Easton's Bible Dictionary also contains an entry stating the Amorites are "represented on the Egyptian monuments with fair skins, light hair, blue eyes, aquiline noses, and pointed beards. The Encyclopædia Britannica, 13th ed., vol. 1, 1929, also contained a physical description of the Amorites from Egyptian illustrations:
Egyptian illustrations of the New Kingdom show the Palestinian Amorites to have been a race much more like the Northern Europeans than the Semites; long-headed, with blue eyes, straight noses and thin lips.
'... the terms “Amorites” and “Amalekites” are used synonymously for the “Canaanites”...'
"thou shalt destroy their name from under heaven . . ."
Why did Wikipedia's censors remove from the article at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amorite the quotes above about the Physical appearance of these Hamitic farmers? Some claim that Hamites were Negroid and that the Israelites were in fact themselves Canaanites. That Hamitic farmers were not allowed to speak Indo-Hittite languages after they were enslaved and their land was given to Abraham from Ur of the Chaldees, may be why some scientists consider them to be Semitic linguistically (and possibly even racially). Swiss scientists who work at iGENEA (FTDNA's European affiliate) recently revealed that Hamitic Pharaoh Tutankhamun (~1333 BC) belongs to Celtic HG R1b1a2 despite the Egyptian government's efforts to keep his test results secret.
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"British Israelism (also called Anglo-Israelism) is a doctrine based on the hypothesis that people of Western European descent, particularly those in Great Britain, are the direct lineal descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. The doctrine often includes the tenet that the British Royal Family is directly descended from the line of King David" (via Princess Tea Tephi). "The central tenets of British Israelism have been refuted by evidence from modern genetic, linguistic, archaeological and philological research. The doctrine continues, however, to have a significant number of adherents."
"If you have recent Jewish ancestry, you will then have a high number of Jewish cousins on your matches page" due to endogamous marriage patterns. FTDNA's Population Finder also provides insights about your ethnic origins.
Map # 6 - "Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates". . .
Map # 7 - Kohanim (HG J) "for thousands of years preserved their genealogical lineages since the Temple period."
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"Map # 8 - HG J is found in greatest concentration in the Southwestern Arabian Peninsula. Migration from Arabia into the Fertile Crescent has been a constant pattern of human movement in the Middle East since antiquity. As such, the Arabian peninsula has long been accepted as the original Semitic Urheimat by a majority of scholars. Older theories positing Mesopotamia as the Semitic homeland were severely undermined by the identification of the non-Semitic Sumerian culture in Mesopotamia in the late 19th century..." Quote from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Semitic_language#Homeland
Map # 9 - "Historically nomadic herder lifestyles have led to warrior-based cultures that have made them fearsome enemies of settled people." "Some nomadic peoples, especially herders, may also move to raid settled communities ..." "This lifestyle ... is possibly associated with the appearance of Semitic languages in the region of the Ancient Near East." "The nomadic lifestyle was well suited to warfare, and the steppe horse riders became some of the most militarily potent peoples in the world".
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You heard some of the above theories here first. Click on Image # 1 above if you want to know more about them, e.g.: