R-DF21 and Subclades- Background



Alexander, Almond, Beaghen, Beasley, Beeman, Beggan, Beirne, Biggins, Bigham, Boe, Boggs, Bowe, Bowes, Bowles, Boyd, Boylan, Boyle, Brattin, Britton, Brooks, Bumgarner, Burns, Butler, Byrne, Cain, Caine, Calkins, Callahan, Campbell, Canady, Cane, Carroll, Carter, Clarke, Click, Coberly, Colla, Collins, Colson, Compton, Conaway, Conley, Conner, Connolly, Connor, Conrardy, Cooper, Corbett, Corcoran, Coughlan, Crain, Crow, CTS3655, Cubberley, Culbreath, Cupit, Davenport, Deevy, Dever, Devine, DF21, DF25, DF5, Diamond, Dolan, Donahoo, Dondas, Dooley, Doolin, Downing, Doyle, Driscoll, Duffy, Dundas, Edwards, Faherty, Farris, Feehan, Feeney, Ferris, Fillongley, Flanagan, Foley, Forrest, Furgeson, Galbraith, Gammie, Garvey, Gilbreath, Gillis, Glennon, Goggins, Gorman, Grant, Griffeth, Griffin, Griffis, Griffith, Groves, Hackett, Hall, Hamilton, Hancock, Harbour, Harris, Harriss, Hart, Harte, Heaney, Hedrickson, Helm, Hendrickson, Henretty, Henry, Herrington, Hetlet, Higgins, Hind, Hinds, Hodnett, Hughes, Irving, James, Johnson, Jones, Judd, Kain, Kane, Kaptein, Kealy, Keane, Keeney, Kelley, Kelly, Kenan, Kern, Kewley, King, L1336, L1337, L1402, L1403, L362, L625, L626, L627, L641, L642, L658, L720, Lalor, Laois, Lawler, Lawlor, Lawrence, Leahy, Leeming, Lennon, Leonard, Lewis, Linville, Little, Long, Lusk, Lydon, Lynch, Lyon, MacDonald, MacDougall, MacInnes, MacIntosh, MacMahon, MacMartin, Mahan, Maher, Mahon, Mahoney, Main, Måland, Malone, Marr, Martin, Matthews, McArdle, McAtee, McAulay, McAuley, McCall, McCarthy, McCarty, McClain, McCloud, McConnell, McDaniel, McDonald, McEvoy, McGregor, McGuire, McHugh, McInnes, McIntosh, McKenna, McLaughlin, McLellan, McMahon, McQuilken, McQuilkin, McQuillan, Meade, Merrill, Montgomery, Moore, Moorhead, Morgan, Morrison, Murphy, Neal, Newman, Nichols, Norkus, O'Beirne, O'Brien, O'Byrne, O'Carroll, O'Cathain, O'Connor, O'Devoy, O'Donoghue, O'Doran, Ogan, O'Guin, O'Keefe, O'Kelley, O'Maghna, ÓMaolChonaire, O'Meagher, O'Mochain, O'Moore, O'Neill, Osburn, O'Shea, Osullivan, O'Toole, Owens, P314.2, Paden, Parry, Peck, Peden, Perry, Porter, Reddin, Reilly, Reynolds, Rice, Riddle, Roach, Roberts, Robertson, Roderick, Rogers, Rose, Ross, Rowell, Runnells, S190, S191, S192, S253, S280, S281, S299, S302, S303, S308, S309, S420, S421, S422, S424, S426, S427, Sandison, Selbie, Shannon, Sharp, Sharpe, Simmons, Singleton, Smith, Springer, Sullivan, Taylor, Thomas, Thompson, Thornton, Tiede, Tierney, Tracey, Tracy, Viar, Walker, Ward, White, Wilkes, Williamson, Wright, Z246, Z248


For more information on the R-DF21 haplotree structure, please see the tree below, or visit:
To join the R-DF21 project, most project members will meet one of these criteria:
  • A positive (derived) result for DF21 or any of the SNPs located under R-DF21
  • A close Y67 or Y111 match with a result that is positive for one or more of the DF21 SNPs
  • A close paternal relative that meets one of the above two criteria
  • Planning to order tests and wants assistance with determining what to order
The SNPs that are the focus of this project were found in 2010-2011 via analysis of whole genome sequences available from the 1000 Genomes Project ("DF" and "Z" SNPs), new "L" SNPs found via Thomas Krahn's Walk Through the Y (WTY) tests offered by Family Tree DNA, and new "S" SNPs found by Dr Jim Wilson (found in a whole genome sequence of his own DNA). The precise structure of these SNPs can be seen below. More information on the "S" SNPs can also be found on the "news" tab of the project pages.

Note that DF21 and L21 are two different SNPs that have the unfortunate coincidence of having of the same numerical suffix. DF21 was originally directly under L21, but with the discovery of DF13, DF13 now lies between DF21 and L21. Some people refer to DF21 as being a "son" of DF13, and a "grandson" of L21.

TMRCA estimates by MikeW using Ken Nordtvedt's Generations5 spreadsheet suggest that R-DF21 is comparatively quite old, with a TMRCA of 3112 YBP versus 4135 YBP for all of R-L21.

All the SNPs with "DF", "L", and "Z" names shown on the haplotree below can be ordered à la carte from FTDNA; select "Order Advanced Tests" after clicking on "Order Tests and Upgrades" in the left-sidebar. Do not select "Order Advanced SNP Test."  SNPs with "S" names can be ordered from ScotlandsDNA.com.

There are a variety of forums, boards, lists, groups, etc. where R1b in general, and sometimes DF21 specifically, are discussed. The three that I specifically monitor and contribute to are:

YSTR values are a valuable aid in both determining which SNP markers to order, as well as in determining how to cluster results. Unfortunately, the very low resolution Y12 and Y25 tests provide no assistance for either use, and the low resolution Y37 test is only of minimal use. There are STR clusters in this project that are only discernible if Y111 has been purchased.

Project members are requested to have results for the medium resolution Y67 test, and whenever possible, the full resolution Y111 test.

As of 27 April 2013, there are 255 DF21+ project members with Y-STR results. 153 (60%) have (or will have shortly) results for the Y111 test and 73 (29%) have results for the Y67 test. There are 29 (11%) low resolution Y37/Y25/Y12 results; about half of the 29 have a close relative in the project that has higher resolution test results. A total of 29 people have joined project since January 2013, with the number of Y111 results increasing by 8, and the number of Y67 results increasing by 18.

FTDNA Projects of interest

·    R-L21 – Umbrella project for all varieties of L21+, including all DF21+ clades

·    Clan Colla – DF21+ Z246- L720- P314.2-
YSTR Motif: DYS425=NULL (100%),  DYS505=9 (100%),  DYS511=9 (99%), DYS413a=22 (95%),  DYS385b=15 (92%), DYS481=22 (88%)
GD=11 (or less) from Ysearch modal entry

·    Ely Carroll – DF21+ Z246- L720- P314.2-
YSTR Motif: DYS492=11
GD=12 (or less) from Ysearch modal entry

·    Little Scots Cluster – DF21+ Z246- L641- L642- L720- P314.2-
YSTR Motif: DYS391=10,  DYS458=18,  DYS449=30, DYS464=13-15-17-X,  GATA-H4=10,  DYS590=9, DYS413=22-23
GD=12 (or less) from Ysearch modal entry

N.B. The last revsion of this chart was in 2013. More recent events are captured on the project NEWS and RESULTS pages.

What Should You Order?

If you have questions about joining the project, or which SNP(s) to order, please contact one of the project administrators for assistance.

If you are DF5+, please e-mail the project administrator to see if you should order L627 or L658. Most DF5+ results will be L627- and L658-.

If you are DF25+, you should order Z248 and DF5. Most DF25+ results will also be Z248+ and DF5+.

If you are Z246+, you should order DF25 if you match the DF25+ haplotype signature:

DYS643=9 and match a minimum of two values for DYS717=20, DYS549=11, and DYS504=16.
If all three do not match, the third value will be off by a distance of no more than one.

If you are P314.2+, you may choose to order:
  • L362  All results to date that are P314.2+ L362+ belong to the 21-1113-P12-A variety

If you are DF21+, you may choose to order:
  • P314.2  P314.2+ has distinctive off-modal signatures, please check the deep ancestral variety information below before ordering

  • Z246  It is unknown at this time what proportion of DF21+ will also be Z246+
  • L720  It is unknown at this time what proportion of DF21+ will also be L720+
  • L641  Likely private
  • L642  Likely private
If you have not tested any of the above SNPs, start by ordering DF21. Please check the haplotree and cluster lists below to see if you fall into a clade or cluster that has a known DF21 status.

DF21 Status for Deep Ancestral Varieties
See the "Haplotype Data for R1b-L21" file in R1b-L21 Yahoo Group Links for deep ancestral variety assignments and definitions. This is also known as "Mike W's spreadsheet" and contains ~10000 haplotypes gathered from a variety of FTDNA projects; currently ~8% of these are believed to be some variety of R-DF21.

Note that DF21 predictions may not be valid for short haplotypes or for haplotypes that are on the fringe of their cluster. Predictions may be based on a limited number of samples; you are encouraged to check the representative haplotypes in the spreadsheet.

The DF21 project uses member subgroup labels beginning with a letter.  The R-L21 haplotype spreadsheet uses “21-” as the prefix for all categories that are known to be DF21+.

Label       Terminal SNP       R-L21 Haplotypes

  A           L658+            21-246-255-AC

  B           L1402+           21-246-255-M

  C1          L627+            21-246-255-R

  C2-C4       CTS3655+         21-246-255-G, 21-246-255-L, 21-246-255-uas

  D           DF5+             further testing needed; 21-246-255-AD, 21-246-255-X, 21-246-255-uas

  E           uncertain        further testing needed

  F1          DF25+            21-246-unassigned

  F2          DF25+            21-1624

  F3          DF25+            21-246-1321

  G           Z246+            21-246-unassigned

  I           L720+            21-1014-Loc

  K1          DF21+            21-5909-A

  K2          L1336+           21-5909-A

  L1          S190+            21-5909-LS, Little Scots Cluster

  L2          S424+            21-unassigned

  M1          DF21+            21-1722

  M2          DF21+            Pateley Bridge

  M3          DF21+            21-1123-Aran

  M4          DF21+            21-1199

  M5          DF21+            21-5199

  M6          DF21+            21-1412

  M7          DF21+            21-1311

  M9          DF21+            Misc entries, 21-uas

  N1          DF21+            21-425n, Clan Colla

  N2          DF21+            misc null DYS425

  O           DF21+            21-2225-EC, Ely Carroll

  P0          DF21+            pre-P314.2

  P1          P314.2+          21-314-12, 21-314-P13B

  P2          L362+            21-314-P13A

  P9          uncertain        may be P314.2+ or L362+

  X2          DF21?

Note that other categories in the R-L21 Haplotypes spreadsheet may be DF21-, or may be DF21? (unknown).

Last Revision: 24 May 2013

General Fund Donations

Donations made to the General Fund that do not specify a specific use will be used to fund additional testing for kits that would help refine the phylogenetic tree, or provide additional information about the origins or migration paths of the DF21 clades.

General Fund

Current balance: $199.00

Type Amount Date Donor Note KitNum Donation Type
Debit $39.00 3/23/2014       Unknown
Debit $39.00 3/23/2014       Unknown
Credit $80.00 3/23/2014 David R Moore L1403 on kits 193185 and 102858   Individual
Debit $78.00 3/18/2014       Unknown
Credit $80.00 3/14/2014 David R Moore L1402/3 for N74431   Individual
Debit $39.00 9/21/2013     178330 Unknown
Credit $20.00 9/7/2013 RonaldG123 Not sure what the types are this is for research wherever needed.   Honor
Debit $39.00 8/3/2013     N112443 Unknown
Credit $39.00 8/3/2013 Erik Maher L1336 test for kit # N112443 (Maher).   Individual
Debit $39.00 8/2/2013     148668 Unknown
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