N1c1 Haplogroup Y-DNA Project - Results

N1c1 Haplogroup



SNP L550+ is typical for South-Baltic and Scandinavian II branches of haplogroup N1c1 L550.
 The mutations that define the subclade N1c1 are M178 and P298. This is the most frequent subclade of haplogroup N M231.
Haplogroup N1c1 is approximately 10 000 years old and has higher average frequency in Northern Europe than in Siberia, reaching frequencies of approximately 60% among 
finns and approximately 40% among latvians and lithuanians.
N1c1 haplogroup has Southern Siberian origin, but it's very ancient migration to Europe (mostly around the Baltic Sea) and Volga region from Siberia and the Urals.

Haplogroup N1c1 distribution

Haplogroup N (Y-DNA)
N is found among Uralic speakers, from Finland to Siberia, and at minor frequencies as far as Korea and Japan. In Europe, haplogroup N is only found at high frequencies among modern Finns (58%), Lithuanians (42%), Latvians (38%), Estonians (34%) and northern Russians.

Haplogroup N is believed to have originated in Southeast Asia approximately 15,000 to 20,000 years ago, but the N1c1 subclade found in Europe likely arose in Southern Siberia circa 10,000 years ago, and spread to North-East Europe 6,000 years ago.

Haplogroup N1c1 is associated with the Comb Ceramic culture (4200-2000 BCE), which evolved into Finnic and pre-Baltic people.The Indo-European Corded Ware culture (3200-1800 BCE) progressively took over the Baltic region and southern Finland from 2,500 BCE. The merger of the two gave rise to the hybrid Kiukainen culture (2300-1500 BCE). Modern Baltic people have a roughly equal proportion of haplogroup N1c1 and R1a, resulting from this merger of pre-Uralic and pre-Balto-Slavic cultures.