This is my analysis of the results of the Kits which have been tested. I am not a specialist in this field and my results are based on my knowledge of the genealogy and history of the various Lumsden families and individuals (Archie Lumsden).
Only 25 markers have been considered, as this is the most common base for results. Kits which have been tested to 37 markers or more are indicated with an asterisk. Results from the extended tests re-inforce the findings of the 25 marker tests.
As at August tests have been carried out on 45 male Lumsdens, plus one non-Lumsden surname. The results so far fall into four groups with a total of seven sub-groups. Three haplogroups have been identified, I1a, R1b1 and R1b1b2, with twenty-two members in the R1b1 haplogroup, ten in the sub-group R1b1b2 and seven in the I1a haplogroup. Seven results have been received from Lumsdens who, at present, do not match the other groups or with each other. These will be included as a separate group 3 until further evidence emerges.
The order discussed is based on the Genealogical Distance from Kit 96922, who is the senior member of the “historical” Lumsden family. This gives us a feel for the relationship between the individuals and the groups and sub groups.
R1b1 - Group 1a - Kits 96922, 80086*, 72159* and 72828 and 102419.
This is a family group, all members having a known relationship to one another and are all members of the group with the oldest known Lumsden history. They have a common ancestor in Gilbert Lumden of Blanerne who received charter of that estate in 1329. This family was a branch of the original Lumsdens of Lumsdaine, who are recorded using the surname in 1170.
Kits 96922 and 80086 have a common ancestor in Captain William Lumsdaine of Innergellie (1792-1830) and have an identical 25 marker match to one another.
Kits 72159, 72828 and 102419 are also descended from Gilbert Lumsden and are members of the Aberdeenshire Lumsdens.
They have a common ancestor in Hary Lumsden of Pitcaple (1753-1833) and 72159 has an identical 25 marker match to 96922 and 80086. 72828 and 102419 differ by only the one same marker from the other three members of this group.
R1b1 – Group 1b – Kits 44187*, 102254, 99833, 139875, 104565, 103151, 77073*, 80912, 21149, 152675* and 224563*. These members have no recorded relationship, but from the DNA results must have a common ancestor.
Kit 44187 finds his oldest ancestor John Lumsden married to Margaret Morris in 1756,in Collessie, Fife and lives in the USA. Only two markers removed from 96922.
Kit 102254 traces his ancestry to George Lumsden who married Elizabeth Dryburgh in Falkland, Fife, in 1773. He has an identical 25 marker match to 44187.
Kit 99833 has a 25/25 match to 44187 and 102254. He traces his ancestry to Walter Lumsden who married Ann Bothron in about 1824 in Cameron, Fife.
Kit 139875 traces his ancestry to John Lumsdaine and Jean Gordon, who married in Comrie in Perthshire in 1771. His 25 marker result is identical to the first three members of this group.
Kit 104565 has an oldest recorded ancestor Robert Lumsden, who married Elizabeth Wedderburn in 1817 in Aberdeenshire and lives in Scotland. Two markers removed from 96922. Unique in Group 1 in having a 24 at marker position 390.
Kit 1003151 traces his ancestry back to Walter Lumsden who married Mary Trail in 1794 in Falkland, Fife. He is one marker removed from 44187.
Kit 77073 traces his ancestor back to James Lumsden who married Ann Duguid in 1842 in Fyvie, Aberdeenshire. He is also one marker removed from 44187, albeit a different marker.
Kit 80912 traces his ancestor back to James Lumsden who married Marion Ralston in about 1731 in Edinburgh, Scotland, and he is one marker removed from 44187.
Kit 121149 traces his Lumsden ancestor to David Lumsden who married Catherine Foulis in about 1770 in Fife. He is two markers different from the head of this sub-group.
Kit 152675 traces his ancestors to Alexander Lumsden and Margaret Campbell who married in Barony Parish, Lanark in 1779. A genetic Distance of 4 from the head of group 1, with a unique repetition of 15 at marker 385a.
Kit 224563 has a non-Lumsden surname, but his DNA shows an identical result to Kit 44187 at 37 markers. i have no details of his paper ancestry, but there must have been a male Lumsden ancestor in the recent past.
This sub-group 1b has a strong Fife connection and a very tight genetic spread, indicating that they have a common ancestor some time in the past.
R1b1 – Group 1c - Kits 28424*, 37662*, 89809, 122414*, 40140 and N61198.
Another family group, all appear to be descended from George Lumsden who lived in Virginia in about 1730. 28424, 37662, 122414 and 89809 are identical on 25 markers and 40140 is one marker difference from the others. N61198 has only tested 12 markers, but these are identical to the first 12 markers of the other members of this sub-group. No ancestry is known at this time, but he must be related to the four others.
Summary Group 1.
The genetic difference across the 21 members of this group is only five, with a gradual spread of results, indicating that this group probably had a common ancestor about 600AD.
R1b1b2 – Group 2a - Kits 34969, 53271 and 93334. Another family group, all having a common ancestor, John Lumsden, who lived in Virginia in about 1730. It was thought at one time that there was a relationship with the members of Group 1c, but the DNA results rule this out.
34969 and 53271 are brothers and although 53271 has only tested 12 markers, it is presumed a 25 marker test would be identical with his brother. 93334 differs by one marker from the others and this is marker 393, which alters from 13 to 14.
R1b1b2 – Group 2b – Kits 167771*, 32105, 55060*, 77373*, 191426* 72409 and 144192*. There is no recorded relationship between these members, but from the DNA results, they must have a common ancestry. They mostly have a 14 at marker 393 and an additional marker difference from 93334, which may eventually indicate a relationship between these two sub-groups. There is a strong connection to Ireland.
167771 has an ancestry back to a William Lumsden and Anne Callum who married 1816 in Banff, Scotland. On 25 markers he is a match with 93334 of Group 2a, indicating a relationship between them. He has at 37 markers a close 36/37 relationship with three other members of Group 2b.
32105 traces an ancestry back to a John Lumsden, who lived in Ireland in about 1821.
55060 traces an ancestry back to a John Lumsden who married Ann Leach, who lived in Ireland about the same period and has an identical 25 marker match to 32105.
77373 traces an ancestry to another John Lumsden in Ireland in about 1865 and has an identical 25 marker match to both of the above. 74029 traces an ancestry to Scotland and is only one marker different from the the above.
191426 lives in Canada and has an ancestry back to a John Lumsden who was born in Ontario in 1866, but with a possible link to Ireland. The only one in this Group who has a 14 marker at position 392.
74209 also lives in Canada and is the only member of this Group with a 11 at position 455. He traces his line back to England.
144192 is the only participant so far who has a 15 at marker 393 and an 18 at marker 458. He traces his ancestry to Alexander Lumsden who married in Wexford, Ireland in the 1700s.
Several members of this group have extended their test to 37 markers. The results strengthens the probable relationship between them.
Summary Group 2 – With a spread of just four in the Genetic Difference across these ten members, it it probable that there was a common ancestor about 1200 AD, but a different one from Group 1.
Summary Haplogroup R1b1 – This haplogroup was resident in the Iberian peninsula at the end of the Ice Age. As the conditions bettered, they moved north, eventually into the British Isles, as the original settlers, about 10,000 years ago. Of the present male population of Scotland, about 73% are descended from this haplogroup.
Group 3 - Kits 83034,79397, 189789*, 204253*, 198797, 211246* and 163416*.
83034, traces an ancestry back to James Lumsden who married Ann in about 1831 in the North-East of England. Haplogroup R1.
Kit 79397, has an ancestry back to William Lumsden who married Janet Foster in about 1798 in the Lasswade area of Midlothian in Scotland. Haplogroup R1b1b2.
Kit 189789, has an ancestry leading back to a Robert Lumsden who had a son in 1806 in Monkstown, Ireland. Haplogroup R1b1b2.
Kit 204253, has an ancestry back to a William Lumsden, born in 1788 in Scotland, who married a Margaret MacDougal. Interestly he has a 36/37 match to a male Douglas who lives in Australia. Haplogroup R1b1b2.
Kit 198797 goes back to Thomas Lumsdon, born about 1711 in Ponteland, in NE England, who married Elizabeth Greaves. Haplogroup predicted at R1b1a2
Kit 211246. I have no information on the ancestry of this member. He has a 25/25 match with 198797, so must be related.
Kit 163416 has an ancestry back to a Michael Lumsden, probably born in Scotland whose family moved to Canada and the USA. Haplogroup I2b1.
The DNA results for these kits show a marked difference from any other Lumsdens tested at this time and from each other, so until further results are known, they will be placed in Group 3. .
I1a – Group 4 – Kits 39002, 64140, 98413, 92078*, 38631, 138425 and 292117*.
These members are not all related by paper record.
39002 has an ancestry going back to James Lumsden, who married Christian Henderson in Auchterderran, Fife in about 1816.
64140 traces an ancestry to David Lumsden and Helen Morice who married in Abdie, North East Fife, in about 1750. One marker removed from 39002.
98413 and 92078 are related, having a common ancestor in Thomas Lumsden who married Christian Melville in Kilmany, Fife in 1771, although the family goes back to before 1753, still in Kilmany.
98413 is one marker different from 64140 and 92978 shows a further one marker difference.
38631 Traces an ancestry back to Alexander Lumsden who married Helen Graham in Dundee, Angus in about 1799 and is also two markers different from 39002.
138425 has the same ancestry as 38631 and has a 25/25 match.
292117 has a paper ancestry to a James Lumsden, born in Fossoway on the Fife/Clackmannan border. On 25 markers he is identical to39002. On 37 markers he has a 34/37 match to 64140 and there is a strong possibility from paper records that they share a common ancestor in the 1750s.
Summary Group 4 – It is interesting that there seems to be a strong Fife connection in this group. It is probable that these members had a common ancestor in about 600AD. Further results are required to gain more understanding of the relationship between these lines.
Summary Haplogroup 1a1 -The I1a haplogroup was in the Balkans area at the end of the Ice Age and moved north into Northern Europe and Scandinavia. There is no way they can be related to the R1b1 Lumsdens in the last 20,000 years. This haplogroup comprises about 15% of the present Scottish male population and must have arrived in Scotland as either Mesolithic settlers or in the waves of Norse/Anglo-Saxon invaders in the period after the fall of the Roman occupation.