Project Results – Notes on Project Clusters.
NB clusters are continuously under review and may change as new members join the Project. The cluster structure may also change as new SNPs are discovered for Haplogroup T.
Update in progress - January 2014
Pre-Alpha/Beta/Gamma Clusters (L208- and L131-)
These members have tested positive for M184 but negative for L206, M193 and M70.
This cluster is positive for M70 but negative for all known downstream SNPs.
Members have roots in Western Asia. #206986 is a research sample collected by the University of Arizona from the Jewish communities of Iraq and Iran.
Member #1568487 uniquely has a positive result for L162 (PAGES00021) and a negative result for L208 (PAGES00002). Origins are the Greek-speaking communities in Turkey.
Alpha Clusters (confirmed or probable L208+ Z709-)
Alpha-1-A (and subcluster Alpha-1-Aa)
A significant and diverse cluster characterised by DYS389i =12, DYS392 > 13, DYS464a = 10. Probable origins are Hispanic and/or North African. Thomas Jefferson’s paternal line is likely to belong to this cluster. Alpha-1-Aa is a small, young subcluster.
2 Members of this cluster have tested positive for 6 new SNPs via the Geno 2.0 test. PF7443, PF7444, PF7445, PF7453, PF7457 and PF7458 - T1a1a3 on the ISOGG tree. Positive results have not been seen in any other cluster. It is anticipated that T1a1a3 coincides with this cluster or a major part of it.
This small cluster is characterised by SNP P317 and a distinctive DYS390 = 21.
Most members have roots in the Ashkenazi Jewish communities of Germany and Poland but #206985 is a research sample from the Sephardic community in Italy.
A P321+ research sample from Syria.
A large cluster, most of whose members have Ashkenazi Jewish roots. Potentially splits into 2 subclusters as several members have a distinctive DYS492 = 9 whilst others have the usual value of 12.
A small, young cluster showing signs of recurrent recombination events at DYS464.
See the Joines Project for further examples:
This cluster’s members all have roots in the Assyrian communities of Iraq and Iran.
A small cluster characterised by DYS437 = 13. Most members have Hispanic roots.
Members are placed here if they have one other close match and one or both of the pair have L208+ Z709- results.
These members have L208+ Z709- but do not have any close matches.
A P330+ research sample from the Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac community.
These members have one close match but do not have Deep Clade test results.
A Deep Clade test is recommended but only one of each pair needs to be tested.
#39641 matches #29849.
#76109 matches #N98856.
These members do not have any close matches and no subgroup prediction. SNP tests are strongly recommended - either Geno 2.0 or stand alone tests starting with Z709.
Alpha-9-Y and Alpha-9-Z
SNP testing for these members is incomplete but they are likely to be L208+ Z709- P77- L131-.
Beta Clusters (confirmed or probable Z709+)
Beta-1-A (subclusters Beta-1-Aa and Beta-1-Ab)
An Ashkenazi Jewish P77+ cluster characterised by duplication at DYS464. The cluster splits into 2 subclusters, one has an unusual DYS391 = 11 whilst the other has DYS391 = 10. There are other markers which distinguish the two subclusters.
An old and diverse cluster characterised by DYS590 = 9 and DYF395S1 = 17-18.
This cluster may represent an early split in T-P77.
Beta-1-C (and subcluster Beta-1-Ca)
Most members of this cluster have Ashkenazi Jewish roots. A small subcluster has a distinctive DYS388 = 14.
Members are from Saudi Arabia. This cluster is confirmed P77+ but has DYS641 = 10 and DYS481 = 23 which is an unusual combination for T-P77.
Haplogroup T members of the Knowlton surname project. Some lines have a distinctive DSY450 = 6.
See the Knowlton Project for more examples:
These two members may have an additional mutation L117 which independently occurs in haplogroup E.
Both have roots in Poland.
Members are placed here if they have one other close match and one or both of the pair have a P77+ result.
#149827 matches #149835.
#28059 matches #44973.
These members have a P77+ result but do not have any close matches.
These members do not have a P77+ result nor a close match but do have DYS641 = 11 and DYS481 = 22 which are characteristic of confirmed P77+ results.
Beta 2-A (was Alpha-1-B)
A young cluster characterised by DYS456 = 12. Several surnames without known genealogical connections. A WTY test did not find any cluster specific SNPs but a Geno 2.0 test has found that the cluster is positive for Z710, Z713 and Z714, SNPs only previously seen in association with P77.
This cluster has its own project – see
Beta-3-A (was Alpha-1-E)
This T-Z709 cluster comprises a Hispanic branch and an Eastern European one (Russian/Ukrainian Jewish). Possibly both branches have Sephardic Jewish roots.
Beta-3-B (was Alpha-1-F)
This small cluster is characterised by a very rare DYS19 =12 but as yet there are no obvious geographical links between its members.
Beta-3-C (was Alpha-1-J)
Tentative cluster based on shared DYS442 = 10 and other similarities.
Most members have roots in the Turkey/Armenia/Iran region.
This small cluster is characterised by YCAii = 22-26. It doesn’t yet have any Deep Clade results but is predicted to be P77+.
Members are placed here if they have one other close match and either only have 37 marker results or DYS641 = 10.
SNP testing is recommended but only one of each pair needs to be tested.
#99866 matches #158106.
#89243 matches #80252.
#93822 matches #65009.
These members do not have any close matches and have DYS641 = 10. SNP testing is recommended - either Geno 2.0 or stand alone tests starting with Z709.
These members don't have results for more than 37 markers. They could be P77+ or Z709+ but an upgrade to 67 markers is recommended first.
Gamma Clusters (T1b - confirmed or probable L131+)
Members of this cluster have a confirmed L131+ result. This cluster is being reviewed and may be split into smaller clusters.
This cluster has a confirmed L131+ result and is characterised by an additional copy of DYS385 (not visible on the public results pages).
See the Powell Surname Project web page for full DYS385 results and more examples:
This cluster is currently the only Ashkenazi Jewish T1b cluster.
Comprises a surname cluster with roots in France plus a possible distantly related member whose roots are German.
A small cluster which is old and diverse. 3 members have roots in Armenia/Iran whilst #207007 is one of several research samples from the Lemba community in South Africa which tested positive for L131.
A small cluster with several distinctive marker values. 2 of the 3 members have roots in Germany.
A family cluster with ancestry in Ulster and Scotland.
See Line No 2 here for further results for this group
Members of this cluster are confirmed or predicted to be P322+. Of those who have results for 67 markers, all except one have a very rare DYS490 = 10 result. One of these is a research sample from the Palestinian community which has been tested positive for P327, results for this SNP are in progress for other members.
Gamma-2-A and Gamma-2-C
Members of these clusters are predicted to be L131+. They are being reviewed along with confirmed L131+ clusters.
Unclustered - Please Upgrade to 37 or 67 markers!
It is often difficult to place an individual with results for only 12 markers in a cluster. These members are encouraged to upgrade to discover their closest matches within the Project. A new DNA sample is normally not required for an upgrade.