T - The Y-DNA Haplogroup T (former K2) Project - News

Latest News: July 2013

The Project has 551 members including 314 with results for 67 markers and 89 with results for 111 markers.
11 members have transferred Geno 2 results to their FTDNA accounts. Analysis of the results is ongoing and the ISOGG tree has already been updated with details of the most critical new SNPS.

Further updates to follow including new comments on project clusters and recommendations for further testing.

Old News (including comments previously shown on the Results page)


The Project was started on July 30th 2006.
8 members have joined within the first 2 days.
Results have initially been organised into 3 subgroups – Alpha, Beta and Gamma - based on STR marker patterns.
The Thomas Jefferson haplotype would probably belong to the "Alpha" subgroup.

As at 20th August 2006 we have 21 members.

1st December 2006
The project now has 37 members.

8th February 2007
The project has 48 members including 7 with 67 marker haplotypes.
Results for only 12 markers will not be allocated to a group unless there is already a 12/12 or 11/12 match in the group. Please upgrade to at least 25 markers!

18th May 2007
The project has 62 members including 10 with 67 marker haplotypes.
The 67 marker results are giving a clearer picture of K2's structure. Latest analysis suggests an ancient split between Alpha/Beta and Gamma, then a more recent split of Alpha/Beta into 3 subgroups. I have created an "Alpha 2" cluster as one of the 67 marker haplotypes shows some similarity to the Alpha cluster but does not belong to it. The former "Gamma 2" group has been merged with "Alpha 2".
Ideally I would like at least two 67 marker haplotypes from each cluster to minimise the impact of recent mutations on the analysis.

2nd December 2007
We now have 83 members including 18 with 67 marker haplotypes.

May 2008
We now have 100 members!

September 2009
The Project has passed the 200 member mark!
Subgroup tests are now available from the Advanced Orders Menu.
M320, P77 and L131 can be purchased individually for $29 or as a panel for $69.

October 2009
The first subgroup test results have been received and each of T*, T2 and T3 have occurred several times. There have been no T1 results to date.
Project groupings have been restructured as follows:

Alpha - members confirmed, predicted or suspected to be T* (M320- P77- L131-)
Beta - members confirmed, predicted or suspected to be T2 (M320- P77+ L131-)
Gamma - members confirmed, predicted or suspected to be T3 (M320- P77- L131+)
This means that most members will stay in the same major grouping, although some have moved from Beta to Alpha.

Within each major group the subclusters have been renumbered as follows:
Alpha/Beta/Gamma-1 - SNP results confirmed or strongly predicted based on close matches
Alpha/Beta/Gamma-2 - SNP results only weakly predicted or "best guess"

Within these subclusters suffix letters are used to distinguish "clans" which appear to have distinctive marker patterns indicating shared ancestry.

May 2010
We now have 236 members!
The subgroup package has been extended to 6 SNPs, costing $29 each or $99 for the whole panel.

Results obtained by the lab during the development of new SNPs L162 and L208 suggest that most members of haplogroup T will be in one of three subgroups:
T2a* L206+ M320- L162+ L208+ P77- L131-
T2a1 L206+ M320- L162+ L208+ P77+ L131-
T3 L206+ M320- L162- L208- P77- L131+
These groups correspond to the Alpha, Beta and Gamma clusters respectively, as redefined in September '09 (see previous notes)
To date no-one in the project has received results other than one of the above three combinations.

April 2011
The Project membership stands at 314.
FTDNA have upgraded their Deep Clade Test which will now test all significant SNPs found in T for a standard price of $89.

A new paper by Dr. Fernando Mendez and a team including Thomas Krahn (head of FTDNA’s research lab) and Dr. Michael Hammer (FTDNA’s chief scientific advisor at the University of Arizona) has just been published. More details are available here:


The research published in this paper is the basis for the new FTDNA tree.

August 2011
Results are in for Deep Clade Tests and most clusters have been confirmed as either L208+ (aka PAGES00002) and P77-, or P77+. Consequently several clusters have moved from Beta to Alpha. The Alpha/T1a group is now very diverse indicating a very ancient expansion of this clade of T.
We also now have a cluster within Gamma/T1b which is characterised by the new SNP P322 and so is designated T1b1. Tests for P327 for this cluster are still pending.

October 2011
The Project has 367 members including 175 with results for 67 markers and 21 with results for 111 markers.
The Results page has been updated with notes on each cluster of Project members.
Several new SNPs have been discovered through FTDNA's "Walk the Y" (WTY) project. Tests are in progress to determine their place in the Haplogroup T tree structure.