STEWART STUART (royal) Y DNA Project - Background



ALL SURNAMES of patrilineal descendants e.g., BEAUCLERK (Duke of St Albans), BOWLIN, CAMPBELL, COBB, FITZROY (Duke of Grafton), GORDON-LENNOX (Duke of Richmond), MACLEOD-STUART, MALLOURE, MITCHELL, PIERCE, ROBERTSON, SCOTT (Duke of Buccleuch), Steward, STEWART, Stu, Stuart, THOMAS, THOMPSON, WARD


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Column # 1

We thank Family Tree DNA's President and CEO Bennett Greenspan for creating this project for the patrilineal descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland on October 29, 2010.

These videos explain why:

  • Beginners may want to have their DNA tested.
  • Genetic genealogists prefer Family Tree DNA.

A Y-DNA test may help a male to identify his biological father and to obtain information about his patrilineal ancestors all the way back to the last common ancestor (y-LCA) of all of the living races of mankind (estimated to have lived 237 to 581 thousand years ago with 95% confidence).

A ~$40 test for SNP S310 (a.k.a. R-L746) will prove whether or not ANY man is a patrilineal descendant of the first High Steward of Scotland (and therefore of Robert the Bruce). If one of your biological cousins descends from the first High Steward of Scotland so do you, even if your only known Stewart ancestor was a woman. claims that about 50% of the men who have the surname Stewart and who live in the UK descend from the first High Steward of Scotland. Less than 25% of those who volunteered for free DNA tests (and Stewarts who are in FTDNA's database) do.

Autosomal DNA

One may be able to find a Stewart cousin via genealogical research or via an autosomal test (e.g., Family Finder) of one's own DNA. Cousins may or may not inherit enough of the same DNA to show that they have a common ancestor.

  • A child randomly receives half of his autosomal DNA from his mother and half from his father.
  • First Cousins may inherit a quarter of their DNA from one of their common grandparents.
  • Second Cousins may inherit an eighth of their DNA from their common great-Gparents.
  • Third Cousins may inherit a sixteenth of their DNA from their common ggGparents.
  • Fourth Cousins may inherit a 32nd of their DNA from their common gggGparents.
  • Fifth Cousins may inherit a 64th of their DNA from their common ggggGparents.
  • Sixth Cousins may inherit 128th of their DNA from their common gggggGparents - segments of DNA become so small at this level and beyond that accurate comparisons may not be possible.

A man may JOIN THIS PROJECT even if he has never ordered a DNA test, and no matter what his surname is.

As soon as his Y-DNA test results are released they are displayed next to his kit number in the "Ungrouped" category at the bottom of the "Y-DNA Results" web page at If he tested at a high enough level to determine that he is a member of this family he will be quickly reassigned to a different category.

Please remove yourself from this project if your Y-DNA test results show that you are not a patrilineal descendant of the first High Steward of Scotland, e.g., if:

  • The majority of your matches at the Y-37 level or higher do not have a version of the surname Stewart.
  • The name of your haplogroup does not begin with the letter "R-".
  • Over eight of your marker values differ from 181994's at the bottom of the "Y-DNA Results" web page.
  • Your completed Y-DNA37 or higher test results remain in the "Ungrouped" category for more than one week.
  • You test negative for SNP S310 (a.k.a. R-L746).

For security reasons we want to make sure that only members of this family and their closest DF41 cousins have access to this project. The Y-DNA test results of most of its members prove that they qualify. Administrators may allow members who have not had Y-DNA tests to remain in this project if they post genealogical evidence that they do. Please remove yourself from this project if you do not. Those who are mistakenly removed from this project may contact an administrator.

How May We Benefit From Our SNP Test Results?

This ~6 minute VIDEO explains how experts can use the results of Big Y and other next generation sequencing (NGS) SNP tests to scientifically prove exactly how all of the descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland are related to each other.

Scroll to the bottom of this web page if you want to know what to do with your Big Y test results after you receive them.

The L746 phylogenetic trees that Administrators Larry and Desideriu maintain below show SNPs that distinguish some branches of this Stewart family.

If you want to order the newly discovered SNPs of Big Y testers whom you think may belong to your branch because you and they have some of the same off-modal STR marker values, at least one DNA testing company will create tests for them. The web page at allows you to compare your STR (Short Tandem Repeat) test results to those of each L746+ Big Y tester.

How To Order Individual SNP Tests From FTDNA

If you want to order an individual SNP test, login to your MyFTDNA account and:

  • Click ORDER AN UPGRADE in the upper right corner.
  • Click ORDER AN ADVANCED TEST, select SNP from the Test Type menu and type the name of the SNP, e.g., S781.
  • Click FIND, ADD, ORDER NOW, etc.

The results of SNP tests ordered elsewhere will not be shown at

How May We Help Each Other?

Please JOIN THIS PROJECT if you want to help.

The more members of your branch order NGS, etc. tests the more likely we will be able to create pedigrees that show exactly how all of them are related to each other. Don't expect anyone but a genealogist to pay for his own tests and to contribute a sample of his DNA (especially to a stranger), no matter how much you need it.

Diana Gale Matthiesen stated: "Genealogy is like a jigsaw puzzle... If everyone hides their piece of the puzzle, none of us will get anywhere ... there are some serious practical considerations relevant to DNA projects that make lineage-sharing imperative." The fewer make their test results and the name, etc. of their earliest genealogically traced patrilineal ancestor private, the sooner we may determine exactly how all of us are related to each other.

Some of the goals of FTDNA's Royal Stewart project are to:

  • Recruit as many patrilineal descendants of the High Stewards of Scotland as possible, no matter what their surnames and geographic locations may be.
  • Help them to have their DNA tested for genealogical purposes by providing information and financial assistance to those who request it (please help us to recruit more European volunteers for FREE DNA TESTS).
  • Use their test results and pedigrees to determine exactly how they are related to each other and to which branch (sept or stirpes) of this GENS they belong.

Compare our DF13 Clan Colla cousins' FTDNA project administrators' achievements and Big Y test results to this family's if you want to see what could be better.

Click here to scroll to the top of column # 2.

Column # 2

Arms of the Great Steward until 1371

About 50 members of this project had been tested by FTDNA or one of its competitors for SNP S781 (R1b1a2a1a2c1i1a1) by Feb/4/2015. About 40% tested positive and about a third added their test results to their surnames as a suffix in order to facilitate subgrouping, etc.

Branches of the R-L746 family

The phylogenetic tree above was created by It shows the names of the SNPs that define some branches of the descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland, and how long ago those branch mutations occurred and the common ancestor of some members of this family lived.

Our Phylogenetic Tree's Foundation Is Under Construction

QUESTION: "Isn't it strange that none of the testers have any SNPs in common? I would have thought some type of pattern would have emerged by now."

ANSWER: "Most of it was planned that way.

A few months ago we developed a strategy to try to get as many branches identified through BigY as we could to develop a framework. Most of the kits that have tested so far were targeted under that strategy which, if successful, would result in one kit per branch. We still have a few of the targeted kits pending which may identify yet more branches.

But, now that we have a relatively comprehensive framework, additional tests that were not in our targeted set should start the pairing process.

Larry Walker"

Note: About half of our current NGS Testers have already been coupled with members of their own branch of our R-L746 Gens according to Graph # 1 below. Larry's June, 2014 recommendations for Big Y tests were based on genetic distance (shared off-modal branch marker values and SNPs indicate kinship more reliably).

An Analysis of the Big Y Results of some R-S781 Testers

We thank FTDNA's brilliant and hard working Stuart project administrator Desideriu for his "S781 Phylogenetic Tree" below and for his Analysis of the Big Y Test Results of ALL descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland. The lastest versions of his working drafts are at:

If you want your Big Y results to be added to Desideriu's tables:

  • Download and store your .bam files on Google Drive (see the instructions near the bottom of this web page).
  • Send the link needed to access them to Desideriu.

You may:

  • Order a book in French (profits are donated to the General Funds of FTDNA's Stewart projects as needed) about the well-documented and exciting military, etc. history of Desideriu's ancestors in Corsica, etc.
  • Click here to download a free .pdf version thereof.

Branches of the R-S781 family

The left column of Administrator Larry's Graph # 1 below shows exactly how some descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland are related to each other.
All of them belong to the R1b1a2a1a2c1i1a branch of an ISOGG tree that includes all of the descendants of the y-LCA of every living race.
Click on the DF41 phylogenetic tree below if you want to see only the Stewart (S310/R-L746) part of it.

Branches of the DF41 family

Column # 3.

What a Big Y tester can do in order to benefit from his Big Y results after FTDNA delivers them:

We are fortunate that NGS expert Larry Walker analyzes the Big Y test results of descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland, finds novel variants (SNP mutations) via which their branches can be identified, and lists them in Graph # 1 above so that those who did not order an NGS test can prove to which branches they belong (and thereby facilitate their genealogical research) via à la carte SNP tests that cost between $15 and $40.

FTDNA's Big Y Novel Variants report and VCF file only show the markers that meet FTDNA's quality threshold. This means that we cannot assume that any potential SNP is negative if it is shown as “rejected”, or if it is not shown on the Novel Variants report in the VCF file.

Yfull will help us to obtain full utility from your Big Y test by analysing and permanently storing your results for $49 if you:

  1. Telephone FTDNA at (713) 868-1438 or email and request that a DOWNLOAD.BAM FILE button be added to your Big Y Results web page as soon as possible.
  2. Login to your FTDNA account a few days later (if FTDNA says two days or months it may take five).
  3. Click on the “BigY Results” button near the bottom of the page.
  4. Click on the blue “Download Raw Data” button (not the “Export CSV" button).
  5. A pop-up should appear. Click on the green “Download BAM” button (NOT the “Download VCF” button). Contact the FTDNA help desk and ask for one if you do not see one. A Chrome browser user reported that it took about ten minutes to download a ~750 MB file named "" and about an hour to upload it to YFull. More info about the BAM specification is at
  6. Temporarily save your .BAM file on your Desktop or in a directory that you can remember.
  7. Click the “Order Now” button near the bottom of the web page at Some people confuse YFULL with a different business named Full Genomes Corporation (FGC) that markets a product frequently referred to as ‘Full Y’.
  8. Fill out the form. For “Source of raw data”, select “Upload .BAM file from my computer” (the first option). Click on the temporary link that Yfull immediately emails to you, add your .bam file to the upload queue and click the START button.
  9. Solve the anti-spam puzzle and click the “Order Now” button.
  10. You may delete FTDNA's .zip file from your computer after YFull emails your YFull ID and temporary password to you, or store it on Google Drive in case you need it later.
  11. YFull will bill you $49 after it completes its interpretation of your Y-Chr Sequence about three weeks later. You may then join Yfull's "R-DF41" and "R-L21" Groups so that your YFull group administrators can see your raw data (ChrY positions, "private" variants, known SNPs, STRs, etc.).

Note: This will give direct access to your YFull analysis to both Larry and Desideriu (the chief administrator of FTDNA's STEWART S781+ PROJECT for descendants of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll).

Click here to scroll to the top of column # 4.

Column # 4.

Administrator Larry's Recommenations

From: A Big Y Tester

Dear Larry Walker,

Thank you for your preliminary analysis.
I assume you already have access to the data.
Is there anything more I need to provide anyone with?

From: Larry Walker
RE: Congratulations on Big Y results

Dear Big Y Tester,

Your valuable Big Y test results will be used to develop the phylogenetic map of mankind if you join the:

After joining, you should receive a request from an admin or co-admin of each project (I am CCing them) telling you what raw data they would like for you to provide and requesting your permission to use it. That will get you into:

From my end, I recommend that you join which will cost another $49, but IMHO is well worth it.

Over time (I have a large backlog) I will eventually browse your BAM data at Yfull to confirm the status (+ or -) and read quality of over 700 novel variants. Several good reasons to join YFull that do not include anything that I might do are:

  • Other than YFull, everything above is being done by individual volunteers. If any of us gets run over by a truck, then whatever we are providing goes Kaput. YFull is run as a business by a team, so is not vulnerable to the individual casualty risk.
  • YFull provides complete BAM file analysis including Y-STRs and mtDNA (what you get from the rest of us is partial) with a great set of on-line reports and tools. See for examples, or go to and login as email “”, password “yfull” for a hands-on sample.
  • YFull's experimental tree for our R-DF41/CTS2501/ subclade includes private as well as public SNPs, and is updated every 2 to 4 weeks.

I hope that FTDNA and/or FGC will eventually evolve to providing a similar level of analysis and access, but YFull is the only game in town that I know of for now.

That is probably enough for now.

Larry Walker

Click here to scroll to the top of column # 5.

Column # 5.

Administrator Larry's Request

NGS expert Larry Walker Larry prefers that your .BAM file be interpreted by YFULL: "ANYBODY WHO HAS BIGY (or FGC) SHOULD PLEASE-PLEASE-PLEASE JOIN YFULL!!!... While processing new YFull data in preparation for the diagram at for kit 52062 Miller, I found it positive for 17326894CA and 7311229CT which had not been called in the FTDNA reports. And, I found kit 82890 Morrison positive for 7311229CT which had not been called in the FTDNA reports. So, I developed the SPECULATIVE diagram on the ASSUMPTION that all Q’s might be positive (but not called by FTDNA) for those two novel variants. IF CONFIRMED for all of the remaining kits through YFull, it rectifies the problems contained in the online diagram." See FORUM.

Shall We Take the Next Step?

The results of your Y-DNA67 test would be useless if you were the only descendant of the first High Steward of Scotland who ordered it. More descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland have ordered Big Y and Y-DNA111 STR tests than the average Stewart family because of their extraordinary family spirit and because FTDNA created an exclusive project for them.

Shall we take the next step? 148478 Thomas (S781-) tried to get the ball rolling by being the first to order an FGC test. S781+ Administrator Desideriu ordered a $975 Elite Y test on Nov/04/2014. Were their efforts in vain?

A $575 Big Y test covers about 75% of the SNPs in ISOGG's database, and about 70% of the private SNPs that an $975 Elite Y test covers. A test that covers all 14.6 million bases costs even more.

SNP L746 a.k.a. S310

"We are phasing over to favoring the L746 designation for the triad as L744 (adjoins a possible deletion) and L745 (a deletion) can be problematic to identify with next generation sequencing (NGS) and has yielded some false negatives."

"As we are now at a level where identifying branches from STR results appears to be just about impossible, that makes everybody who is willing to invest in a Big Y test a 'priority candidate'".

"Big Y analyst Larry also wrote: ". . .we have covered most, or all, readily identifiable high priority candidates for identification of new branches. ANY additional BigY tests now will either help refine the branches that we have identified, or will identify new branches. Any branch or twig on the box diagram in “Graph #1” that has more than 1 novel variant shown would benefit from refinement."

"... there appears to be no clear indicator from either phylogenetic trees or spreadsheet examination of STR results for projecting whether a person can be expected to test either positive or negative for S781." Must the STR haplotypes of all grandsons of Walter the third High Steward have been identical to the Mode of this entire Stewart family therefore?

" ... 148478 Thomas tested S781-, so whatever hope we had that his FGC test would help clarify the S781+ group is gone. After looking at GD’s, I think that he may end up as a third kit in the Pierce-Thompson cluster."

"Anyway, that is just my opinion. Different people will look at the same data and develop different opinions. The way I see things for now are posted at a permalink for whatever it is worth. That Graph is a LOT of work, so I will not update it very often."

Administrator Larry may update Graph # 1 above, and recommend more SNP tests after FTDNA delivers more results. These results may make it easier for some S781+ and S781- Stewarts to determine to which branch they belong by ordering individual SNP tests instead of Big Y tests (~$700).

Note: Administrator Larry's messages in Columns 3, 4 & 5 above were slightly edited by the web master.

GD between racial haplotypes is greater than indicated due to haplotype convergence.
Table # 2M
Stewart Mode-2917759142
39568 Stewart Duke2-51456067
89163 Australoid59605971-88
N50900 Mongoloid7745105-71139
9 Israelite9151-10559164
215865 Negroid1426716413988-
Related- Hybrid mutation model is used
Table # 1 - Grey cells indicate the 12 ($59), 25, 37 ($169), 67 ($268) and 111 ($339) marker levelsDYS 393DYS 390DYS 19/ 394DYS 391DYS 385DYS 426DYS 388DYS 439DYS 389 iDYS 392DYS 389 iiDYS 458DYS 459DYS 455DYS 454DYS 447DYS 437DYS 448DYS 449DYS 464DYS 460Y-GATA-H4YCA IIDYS 456DYS 607DYS 576DYS 570CDYDYS 442DYS 438DYS 531DYS 578DYF 395 S1DYS 590DYS 537DYS 641DYS 472DYF 406 S1DYS 511DYS 425DYS 413DYS 557DYS 594DYS 436DYS 490DYS 534DYS 450DYS 444DYS 481DYS 520DYS 446DYS 617DYS 568DYS 487DYS 572DYS 640DYS 492DYS 565DYS 710DYS 485DYS 632DYS 495DYS 540DYS 714DYS 716DYS 717DYS 505DYS 556DYS 549DYS 589DYS 522DYS 494DYS 533DYS 636DYS 575DYS 638DYS 462DYS 452DYS 445Y-GATA-A10DYS 463DYS 441Y-GGAAT-1B07DYS 525DYS 712DYS 593DYS 650DYS 532DYS 715DYS 504DYS 513DYS 561DYS 552DYS 726DYS 635DYS 587DYS 643DYS 497DYS 510DYS 434DYS 461DYS 435
Modal STR Haplotype of all Descendants of High Stewards of Scotland tested by FTDNA ==> 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
Haplotype of ducal descendant #39568 of Charles II according to Roger S. Powell, MA1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515193014-15-16-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211412111311111211                                            
Haplotype of # 9 (J1c3d. The y-MRCA of HG R & Semitic J-L147 lived ~45 KYA.1223141014-17111712131129178-811112514202514-14-16-16111021-221514181831-31131011815-168111181191221-22191012121781325211312111312121211321581512242720121213111291112101111301113221511112015191023151116241220189151791111
Haplotype of N50900 (China). The y-MRCA of HG O & R lived ~70 KYA.1225161112-12111212121328179-911112414203112-15-15-15111219-231415171832-36111011815-178117811101217-1716111212167132419121211151011121138158161225282011111312129111110111231111223139921162012221613152512231910141891212
Haplotype of Australoid89163 (GD=59@67). The y-MRCA of HG K & R lived ~106 KYA.1323161013-13111012141429189-91182815192714-14-15-15101119-221514172231-34131013816-169111081110019-21191012121691126221511111311111211                                            
Haplotype of # N64496 & 215865 (GD=68@67, HG A00 descendants of Dixie's Carolinian slaves)1319161016-17131112131230168-910112412213213-15-15-1811916-181515141836-36121610914-1481088117923-23171211121681226230121214101111123915913122228191011111012101110810133101220010927151213261713142415152013151491211
Distance from reference:ZeroOneTwoThree+The Most Recent Common Patrilineal Ancestor of all men who belong to HG R lived ~27 KYA. The Y chromosomes of men in R have no known SNP mutations in common with men in A00 and Neanderthals. According to Dr. Michael Hammer at the University of Arizona and Dr. Thomas Krahn, the theoretical y-MRCA of all men who belong to HG R and men who belong to HG A00 lived ~338,000 years ago (95% confidence interval 237–581 KYA). Some scientists irreverently claim that humans and Neanderthals mated and that their ancestral population lived ~370,000 years ago.

Your contributions to the General Fund of FTDNA's royal Stuart project will be used as you see fit, e.g., to pay for the DNA tests of men with your surname who still live in the part of the world from which you suspect that your patrilineal ancestors came. Most of the donations below were made in order to pay for the DNA tests of men who have the surname Stewart and who live in the UK.

Those who donate to our General Fund can help to avoid confusion and to facilitate communication by using FTDNA's form to state:

  • Their own names or kit numbers.
  • For what test they want their donations to pay, e.g., Big Y.
  • The kit number of the donor of the DNA that will be used for the test.

FTDNA can not use our General Fund to pay for all or part of your DNA test unless your project administrator approves BEFORE you order it.

Please Help Us to Recruit More Volunteers for FREE DNA TESTS, and to Improve this project.

"If you are creating or joining a company the most important thing is to: 1) Do everything you can to gather great people... 3) Constantly seek criticism. A well thought out critique of whatever you are doing is as valuable as gold, and you should seek that from everyone you can, but particularly your friends. Usually your friends know what's wrong, but they don't want to tell you because they don't want to hurt you. They want to encourage you so they do not want to tell you what is wrong with your product. It does not mean that your friends are right but very often they are right. You at least want to listen very carefully to what they say, and to everyone. You should take the approach that you are wrong. Your goal is to be less wrong". SOURCE: the video about Elon MUSK at

Bannockburn Live was a huge success and the highlight of the 700th anniversary year.

This counter read 26,936 on March 1, 2015. It read Zero Mar 01, 2014; 2,975 Apr 01; 6,563 May 1; 7,351 May 11 (replaced the older version); 7,500 May 20; 8,333 June 1; 10,275 July 1; 11,820 August 1; 13,255 September 2; 15,300 on October 1, 17,758 on November 1, 21,813 on December 1, 24,000 Jan. 1, and 24,786 on Jan. 15, 2015 (when Columns # 15 & 16 about anthropology, etc. were censored), and 25,610 on Feb 1, 2015.
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The more patrilineal descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland join this project the more useful it will be to genealogists and scientists.

We thank the following contributors to the General Fund of this project: David E. Stuart, Steven Mitchell, Donald Grant, Michael Clancey, Hereld Stuart, Francis Marion Stewart III, CD Stewart, Donna Lindberg, Robert Lindberg, Shirley Black Barry, Mary Stuart Spangler, Desideriu Ramelet-Stuart, William Hamilton Stewart, Alexander Stewart, Belinda Dettmann, Diana Stewart Powels.

General Fund

Current balance: $736.00

Type Amount Date Donor Note KitNum Donation Type
Debit $425.00 1/9/2015       Unknown
Debit $425.00 12/13/2014       Unknown
Credit $325.00 12/13/2014 Ken STEWART 337093   Individual
Credit $100.00 12/13/2014 Ann Stewart Burns For anonymous Big Y tester Stewart, negative 781   Individual
Credit $100.00 9/7/2014 Michael Clancey Contribution towards Big Y Test for Steven Mitchell. If not needed for it, then for any other purpose.   Individual
Debit $39.00 9/4/2014       Unknown
Credit $100.00 9/4/2014 Preston Stewart Myers This donation is for SNP tests 781 for kit number 209417 or any other SNP test fo further define this kit's ancestry.   Individual
Credit $100.00 9/1/2014 David E. Stuart John Moody Stuart of Philadelphia,1882-1957   Memory Of
Credit $100.00 8/1/2014 Ann Stewart Burns, admin of 330477 In memory of Goodwill Murray Stewart   Memory Of
Credit $100.00 7/26/2014 Janis Stewart Storbo To find Stewarts in Northern Ireland to test for matches   Honor
Page: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 of 7

Project Stats

Statistic Type Count
Big Y 30
Combined GEDCOMs Uploaded 54
DISTINCT mtDNA Haplogroups 57
DISTINCT Y-DNA Confirmed Haplogroups 8
DISTINCT Y-DNA Predicted Haplogroups 0
Family Finder 85
Genographic 2.0 Transfers 12
Maternal Ancestor Information 134
mtDNA 69
mtDNA Full Sequence 43
mtDNA Plus 56
mtDNA Subgroups 10
Paternal Ancestor Information 169
Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups 24
Total Members 213
Unpredicted Y-DNA Haplogroups 0
Unreturned Kits 17
Y-DNA Deep Clade (After 2008) 22
Y-DNA Deep Clade (Prior to 2008) 8
Y-DNA Subgroups 30
Y-DNA111 71
Y-DNA12 118
Y-DNA25 113
Y-DNA37 113
Y-DNA67 100