Russia-Slavic DNA Project - Results

Y-DNA Results:

Abalmasov - R1b1: Western European Origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Adamczak - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Akberdin - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Akhmetov - J1: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 4% of modern day Russians have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Aksentiev - E1b1b: Mediterranean Origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Greeks belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Alhola - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Balakirev - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Balovnev - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Barna - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Baranovsky - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Bassoff - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Bedanov - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Beinhardt - R1b1: Western European Origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Belokopytov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Beschetnov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Bichev - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Bielawa - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) Origin. The I1 lineage likely has its roots in northern France. Today it is found most frequently within Scandinavian populations in northwest Europe and has since spread down into Central and Eastern Europe, where it is found at low frequencies. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Boghossian - G2: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Sarmatians are the likely origin of Haplogroup G. They were a blend of Iranian nomadic horse tribes that were likely descended from the Scythians. The territory of the Sarmatians was an expansive stretch of land reaching from the Caspian Sea in the East to the Vistula River in the West, and as far south as the Danube. Essentially, Sarmatia was a collection of independent tribes, that encompassed parts of modern Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States, Central Asian nations and into central European countries such as Romania and Poland. 2% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Boldyrev - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Bronnikov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Buzaladze - G: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Sarmatians are the likely origin of Haplogroup G. They were a blend of Iranian nomadic horse tribes that were likely descended from the Scythians. The territory of the Sarmatians was an expansive stretch of land reaching from the Caspian Sea in the East to the Vistula River in the West, and as far south as the Danube. Essentially, Sarmatia was a collection of independent tribes, that encompassed parts of modern Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States, Central Asian nations and into central European countries such as Romania and Poland. 2% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Charitonov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Churyukin - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Chuykov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin. 

Coron - J1: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 4% of modern day Russians have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Czajkowski - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Czerwiakowski - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Dabrowski - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Davydov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Dimitrievits - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Dolgorukov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Dronov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Efremov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Ejsmont - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Evdokimov - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Evlashenko - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Ewanco - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Familian - J1: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 4% of modern day Russians have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Faust - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Fedosov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Fedyaev - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) Origin. The I1 lineage likely has its roots in northern France. Today it is found most frequently within Scandinavian populations in northwest Europe and has since spread down into Central and Eastern Europe, where it is found at low frequencies. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Fedyaev - N1b: Northeastern European Origin. Haplogroup N1b is a significantly younger subclade, perhaps only 6,000 to 8,000 years old. Its first appearance is either in Eastern Europe or in Siberia; the question of its exact origin is still not solved. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Filippskiy - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Gagarin - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Galecki - Q: North/Central Asian Origin. The Q lineage is the lineage that links Asia and the Americas. This lineage is found in North and Central Asian populations as well as native Americans. Among European populations, haplogroup Q is found most frequently in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia. This lineage is believed to have originated in Central Asia and migrated through the Altai / Baikal region of northern Eurasia into the Americas.

Gazdik - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Gemega - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Ghericich - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Ghericich - J1: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 4% of modern day Russians have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Golubev - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Gordienko - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Gregorieff - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Grigoriev - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Grigoriev - R1b1: Western European Origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Grigorov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Grishaev - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Gryaznov - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Guzev - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Harushin - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Hluszko - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Holitzke - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Hospod - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) Origin. The I1 lineage likely has its roots in northern France. Today it is found most frequently within Scandinavian populations in northwest Europe and has since spread down into Central and Eastern Europe, where it is found at low frequencies. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Hovanec - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Hudak - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Ionan - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Ishimnikov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Ivanin - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Ivanov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Ivin - I2b1: Nordic (Northwestern European) Origin. The I1 lineage likely has its roots in northern France. Today it is found most frequently within Scandinavian populations in northwest Europe and has since spread down into Central and Eastern Europe, where it is found at low frequencies. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2. 

Iwan - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Jaklinski - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Jasinski - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Jaworski - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin. 

Jaworski - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) Origin. The I1 lineage likely has its roots in northern France. Today it is found most frequently within Scandinavian populations in northwest Europe and has since spread down into Central and Eastern Europe, where it is found at low frequencies. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Jonan - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Kamenev - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) Origin. The I1 lineage likely has its roots in northern France. Today it is found most frequently within Scandinavian populations in northwest Europe and has since spread down into Central and Eastern Europe, where it is found at low frequencies. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Kaminski - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Kananoja - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) Origin. The I1 lineage likely has its roots in northern France. Today it is found most frequently within Scandinavian populations in northwest Europe and has since spread down into Central and Eastern Europe, where it is found at low frequencies. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Kandashoff - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Kaplowitz - G2: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Sarmatians are the likely origin of Haplogroup G. They were a blend of Iranian nomadic horse tribes that were likely descended from the Scythians. The territory of the Sarmatians was an expansive stretch of land reaching from the Caspian Sea in the East to the Vistula River in the West, and as far south as the Danube. Essentially, Sarmatia was a collection of independent tribes, that encompassed parts of modern Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States, Central Asian nations and into central European countries such as Romania and Poland. 2% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Kaplya - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Karandin - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Karlin - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Karmazyn - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Katranov - R1b1: Western European Origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Kharatov - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Khrystyuk - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Klevtsov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Kniznik - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Kochetov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin. 

Komarov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin. 

Komarov - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Komarov - R1b1: Western European Origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Kondratenko - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Korneev - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Kostin - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Kott - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Kowalchuk - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Kowalski - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Kozak - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Kozak - Q: North/Central Asian Origin. The Q lineage is the lineage that links Asia and the Americas. This lineage is found in North and Central Asian populations as well as native Americans. Among European populations, haplogroup Q is found most frequently in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia. This lineage is believed to have originated in Central Asia and migrated through the Altai / Baikal region of northern Eurasia into the Americas.

Krakaukas - Q: North/Central Asian Origin. The Q lineage is the lineage that links Asia and the Americas. This lineage is found in North and Central Asian populations as well as native Americans. Among European populations, haplogroup Q is found most frequently in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia. This lineage is believed to have originated in Central Asia and migrated through the Altai / Baikal region of northern Eurasia into the Americas.

Krasovsky - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Krivenkoff - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Kubasiak - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Kuharev - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Kukurin - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Kukuruzov - J2: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 4% of modern day Russians have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Kuznetsov - N1b: Northeastern European Origin. Haplogroup N1b is a significantly younger subclade, perhaps only 6,000 to 8,000 years old. Its first appearance is either in Eastern Europe or in Siberia; the question of its exact origin is still not solved. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Kuznetsov - J2: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 4% of modern day Russians have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Kvashnin - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Lachowsky - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Lamonov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Lapides - J2: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 4% of modern day Russians have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Lapidus - T1: Eurasian origin. This Haplogroup is about 40,000 years old. T is believed to have originated in Central Asia, and have diffused outward in many directions - perhaps migrating north to the Baltic, and most definitely moving south to the Middle East and the Mediterranean. The T lineage is an old lineage presently found only at low frequencies in Africa, Asia, and in the Middle East. This specific line is found at low frequency in southern Europe, Northern Africa, and the Middle East.

Lapotsky - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Larionov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Leshchiner - J1: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 4% of modern day Russians have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Lesnikov - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Leventhal - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Levine - Q: North/Central Asian Origin. The Q lineage is the lineage that links Asia and the Americas. This lineage is found in North and Central Asian populations as well as native Americans. Among European populations, haplogroup Q is found most frequently in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia. This lineage is believed to have originated in Central Asia and migrated through the Altai / Baikal region of northern Eurasia into the Americas.

Lifanov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Litwin - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Lobin - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Lozinski - E1b1b: Mediterranean Origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Greeks belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Lubatinsky - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin. 

Lukitsch - E1b1b: Mediterranean Origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Greeks belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Lusky - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Lyashok - E1b1b: Mediterranean Origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Greeks belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Lyubimov - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Macskay - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Maiski - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Malmgren - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin. 

Maltsev - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Maltsev - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Malyi - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Mannard - R1b1: Western European Origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Marchenko - R1b1: Western European Origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Marchenko - J2: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 4% of modern day Russians have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Martazan - E1b1b: Mediterranean Origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Greeks belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Marus - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Masalov - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Matrenin - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Medved - J2: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 4% of modern day Russians have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Michalenko - G: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Sarmatians are the likely origin of Haplogroup G. They were a blend of Iranian nomadic horse tribes that were likely descended from the Scythians. The territory of the Sarmatians was an expansive stretch of land reaching from the Caspian Sea in the East to the Vistula River in the West, and as far south as the Danube. Essentially, Sarmatia was a collection of independent tribes, that encompassed parts of modern Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States, Central Asian nations and into central European countries such as Romania and Poland. 2% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Milenin - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Milov - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) Origin. The I1 lineage likely has its roots in northern France. Today it is found most frequently within Scandinavian populations in northwest Europe and has since spread down into Central and Eastern Europe, where it is found at low frequencies. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Minaiev - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Mitin - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Mochalov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Morenkov - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Morev - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Moroze - E1b1b: Mediterranean Origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Greeks belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Mudry - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Mysochka - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Nazarov - R1b1: Western European Origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Nazarov - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Nenakhov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Newerdowski - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Nezhelski - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Nikitchyuk - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Nikitin - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Nikolenko - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Nuriakhmetov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Obizor - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Obolenskyi - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Ogorodnikov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Oleinik - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Ontko - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Orekhov - N1b: Northeastern European Origin. Haplogroup N1b is a significantly younger subclade, perhaps only 6,000 to 8,000 years old. Its first appearance is either in Eastern Europe or in Siberia; the question of its exact origin is still not solved. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Orekhov - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Orinick - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Osipowski - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Ovechkin - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Ovidiev - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Panov - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Parshakov - R1b1: Western European Origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Petrov - R1b1: Western European Origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Petrovich - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Pirogov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Poglodzinski - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Pogrebnoj - J1: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 4% of modern day Russians have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Polushin - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin. 

Popchenko - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin. 

Pranikoff - J2: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 4% of modern day Russians have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Prokopowicz - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Prokopowicz - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin. 

Pustovalov - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) Origin. The I1 lineage likely has its roots in northern France. Today it is found most frequently within Scandinavian populations in northwest Europe and has since spread down into Central and Eastern Europe, where it is found at low frequencies. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Putkonen - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Rachilin - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Reda - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Rogowski - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Rombro - J1: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 4% of modern day Russians have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Rubin - J1: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 4% of modern day Russians have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Rudych - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Rytel - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Ryuma - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Sachuk - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Sakalauskas - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Sandhu - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Sawczyn - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) Origin. The I1 lineage likely has its roots in northern France. Today it is found most frequently within Scandinavian populations in northwest Europe and has since spread down into Central and Eastern Europe, where it is found at low frequencies. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Sawicki - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Schepak - E1b1b: Mediterranean Origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Greeks belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Schuster - R1b1: Western European Origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Selivanov - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Semencic - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Semenenko - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Semenov - G2: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Sarmatians are the likely origin of Haplogroup G. They were a blend of Iranian nomadic horse tribes that were likely descended from the Scythians. The territory of the Sarmatians was an expansive stretch of land reaching from the Caspian Sea in the East to the Vistula River in the West, and as far south as the Danube. Essentially, Sarmatia was a collection of independent tribes, that encompassed parts of modern Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States, Central Asian nations and into central European countries such as Romania and Poland. 2% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Semikolennih - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Senkevitch - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Serbin - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Serov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Shalnyev - I2b1: Nordic (Northwestern European) Origin. The I1 lineage likely has its roots in northern France. Today it is found most frequently within Scandinavian populations in northwest Europe and has since spread down into Central and Eastern Europe, where it is found at low frequencies. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Sharenow - J1: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 4% of modern day Russians have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Sharinov - J2: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 4% of modern day Russians have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Sharipov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Shchennikov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Shcherbakov - R1b1: Western European Origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Shimko - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Shitshker - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Shkaev - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) Origin. The I1 lineage likely has its roots in northern France. Today it is found most frequently within Scandinavian populations in northwest Europe and has since spread down into Central and Eastern Europe, where it is found at low frequencies. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Sholomich - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Shpakovsky - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Shteyman - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Shtrunov - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) Origin. The I1 lineage likely has its roots in northern France. Today it is found most frequently within Scandinavian populations in northwest Europe and has since spread down into Central and Eastern Europe, where it is found at low frequencies. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Shuliak - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Sidorov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Sidorov - N1b: Northeastern European Origin. Haplogroup N1b is a significantly younger subclade, perhaps only 6,000 to 8,000 years old. Its first appearance is either in Eastern Europe or in Siberia; the question of its exact origin is still not solved. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Siedlecki - J2: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 4% of modern day Russians have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Sikaluk - E1b1b: Mediterranean Origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Greeks belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Skapyak - E1b1b: Mediterranean Origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Greeks belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Slonim - J2: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 4% of modern day Russians have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Smirnov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Smirnov - R1b1: Western European Origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Smirnyagin - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Snyder - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Sobański - J2: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 4% of modern day Russians have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Solomin - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Sokolosky - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Soutine - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Sozinov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Stasiewich - J2: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 4% of modern day Russians have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Stebletsov - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Stivadoros - G2: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Sarmatians are the likely origin of Haplogroup G. They were a blend of Iranian nomadic horse tribes that were likely descended from the Scythians. The territory of the Sarmatians was an expansive stretch of land reaching from the Caspian Sea in the East to the Vistula River in the West, and as far south as the Danube. Essentially, Sarmatia was a collection of independent tribes, that encompassed parts of modern Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States, Central Asian nations and into central European countries such as Romania and Poland. 2% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Stolarjuk - J2: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 4% of modern day Russians have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Suchkov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Surikov - G2: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Sarmatians are the likely origin of Haplogroup G. They were a blend of Iranian nomadic horse tribes that were likely descended from the Scythians. The territory of the Sarmatians was an expansive stretch of land reaching from the Caspian Sea in the East to the Vistula River in the West, and as far south as the Danube. Essentially, Sarmatia was a collection of independent tribes, that encompassed parts of modern Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States, Central Asian nations and into central European countries such as Romania and Poland. 2% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Swoboda - R1b1: Western European Origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Sychjov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Tatar - E1b1b: Mediterranean Origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Greeks belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Terentey - R1b1: Western European Origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Tolkachev - R1b1: Western European Origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Tracht - J1: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 4% of modern day Russians have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Travin - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Trifonov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Trimbath - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Turkevich - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Ukhov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Ushakov - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Ustinov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Ustinov - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Uzarski - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Valetov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Varabak - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Vasilyonok - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Velikoselski - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Vilkov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Vinogradov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Visloguzov - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) Origin. The I1 lineage likely has its roots in northern France. Today it is found most frequently within Scandinavian populations in northwest Europe and has since spread down into Central and Eastern Europe, where it is found at low frequencies. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Volkov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Volkov - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Volkov - E1b1b: Mediterranean Origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Greeks belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Volkov - J1: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 4% of modern day Russians have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Voron - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Vorontsov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Vorontsov - R1b1: Western European Origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Vorotyntsev - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Wekluk - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Wendt - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Yanoff - E1b1b: Mediterranean Origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Greeks belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Yatsenko - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Yencharis - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Yurick - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 17% of modern day Russians have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Zavorokhin - R1b1: Western European Origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Zdanowicz - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Zlatkovski - E1b1b: Mediterranean Origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Greeks belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Zolotarev - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Zuk - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Russians share this origin. 

Zyatkov - R1a1: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Mt-DNA Results:

Alekseeva - U5: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U, with its own multiple lineages nested within, is the oldest European-specific haplogroup, and its origin dates to approximately 50,000 years ago. Most likely arising in the Near East, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U5 in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe. Interestingly, individuals with haplogroup U5 may have been come in contact with Neandertals living in Europe at the time. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Alexeev - U4: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U4 has its origin in the Upper Palaeolithic, dating to approximately 25,000 years ago. It is widely distributed in Europe, and has been implicated in the expansion of modern humans into Europe occurring before the Last Glacial Maximum. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Baltrusis - H6a: Middle Eastern Origin. This sub-haplogroup is one of the oldest branches of haplogroup H. Its age is estimated at around 26,000 years. It is one of the most frequent branches of H found among Arabian lineages, and is the most frequent branch among those found in Central Asia. It likely originated in the Middle East or Central Asia. H6 is also found at very low frequencies in Europe. 40% of modern day Europeans are haplogroup H.

Barakshina - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Bardakovskaya - X: Eastern European Origin: Haplogroup X is derived from the N superhaplogroup, which dates to approximately 65,000 years ago. The origin of haplogroup X dates to approximately 30,000 years, and is found distributed throughout the world. Originally found in Europe and thought to be only distributed regionally, the finding of haplogroup X in the Americas startled the human population genetics community. Recently, it has been discovered that there are two major sub-lineages within haplogroup X, and that the geographic distribution and relative ages of these two sub-lineages accord with previous ideas concerning the peopling of the world. Future work on this interesting haplogroup will better document the particulars of the emergence of its distribution and shed more light on regional historical contact and migration. 6% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Bazhenova - N1c: Eurasian Origin. The N superhaplogroup has been characterized as pan-Eurasian. Haplogroup N is one of the two major trunks emerging from the original African root, and dates to approximately 65,000 years ago. Interestingly, several sub-haplogroups of the N cluster—haplogroup N1 and derivative lineages—have been detected in the Near East, suggesting either early divergence near the root of haplogroup N or subsequent migrations back towards western Eurasia following the original dispersal into east Eurasia. Future work will further document the historical distribution of this root haplogroup and closely related haplogroups within the N cluster.

Berg - K: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup K is found through Europe, and contains multiple closely related lineages indicating a recent population expansion. The origin of haplogroup K dates to approximately 16,000 years ago, and it has been suggested that individuals with this haplogroup took part in the pre-Neolithic expansion following the Last Glacial Maximum. 6% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Bobrova - G2a1: East Asian Origin. Haplogroup G is found in East Asian populations. The G1 branch reaches its highest frequencies in the region of Japan and Korea. The G2 branch is most commonly found in China and central Asia, and reaches as far as South Siberia. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

Bordeley/Bordelove - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Brunova - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe. 

Brzostowski - J: Semitic Origin. The mitochondrial haplogroup J contains several sub-lineages. The original haplogroup J originated in the Near East approximately 50,000 years ago. Within Europe, sub-lineages of haplogroup J have distinct and interesting distributions. Haplogroup J*—the root lineage of haplogroup J—is found distributed throughout Europe, but at a relatively low frequency. Haplogroup J is generally considered one of the prominent lineages that was part of the Neolithic spread of agriculture into Europe from the Near East beginning approximately 10,000 years ago. 17% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Chernolyh - I: European Origin. Principally a European haplogroup, haplogroup I is detected at very low frequency across west Eurasia with slightly greater representation in northern and western Europe. Given its wide, but sparse, distribution, it is likely that it was present in those populations that first colonized Europe. This hypothesis is supported by the estimate its age—approximately 30,000 years.

Danilova - U7: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U7 has a Near Eastern origin approximately 30,000 years ago. Within Europe, it occurs at low frequency in the Caucasus. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Doroshenko - U5a1f: Mediterranean Origin. Haplogroups mark the branches on our shared maternal tree reaching back to Africa. Haplogroup U5 is between 24,900 and 35,600 years old. Researchers believe it was born to a woman living in West Asia. Its presence in both Mesolithic gravesites in Iberia and Iron Age gravesites in the Altai Mountains indicate that it spread early across a wide area in Eurasia. Bitter cold and ice forced members of this haplogroup who traveled to Europe as hunter-gathers during the Last Glacial Maximum into refugia. When the ice began to retreat, they were among the earliest settlers. The most common of these lineages in modern populations are U5a1, U5a2, U5b1, U5b2 and U5b3. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Dubovskaya - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Dukhaninv - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Efimkina - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Efimova - V3: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup V is a primarily European haplogroup and underwent an expansion within Europe beginning approximately 13,000 years ago. Though it occurs at low frequency throughout Europe, it is interesting to note that the highest frequency of haplogroup V is found among the Saami in Finland and the Catalunya region of Spain. Some evidence suggests that individuals bearing haplogroup V participated in the colonization of Europe following the last period of glaciation. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup. 5% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Goshgarian - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Grishova - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Ivanchenko - T: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial haplogroup T is best characterized as a European lineage. With an origin in the Near East greater than 45,000 years ago, the major sub-lineages of haplogroup T entered Europe around the time of the Neolithic 10,000 years ago. Once in Europe, these sub-lineages underwent a dramatic expansion associated with the arrival of agriculture in Europe. Today, we find haplogroup T*—the root haplogroup for haplogroup T—widely distributed in Europe. 9% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Ivanova - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Kekoni - K: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup K is found through Europe, and contains multiple closely related lineages indicating a recent population expansion. The origin of haplogroup K dates to approximately 16,000 years ago, and it has been suggested that individuals with this haplogroup took part in the pre-Neolithic expansion following the Last Glacial Maximum. 6% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Kladova - K: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup K is found through Europe, and contains multiple closely related lineages indicating a recent population expansion. The origin of haplogroup K dates to approximately 16,000 years ago, and it has been suggested that individuals with this haplogroup took part in the pre-Neolithic expansion following the Last Glacial Maximum. 6% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Klimova - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Kowal - U2e1b1: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U8 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U2 is found distributed in the Near East and Europe, though it is maintained a rather low frequency throughout. This sparse, yet widespread, dissemination, when combined with the presence of an allied haplogroup found in India, suggests that haplogroup U2 is very old, and was likely an early lineage of the super-haplogroup U, which arose greater than 50,000 years ago. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Kowaluk - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Krzeczkowska - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Künka - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Kupriute - N1b: Eurasian Origin. The N superhaplogroup has been characterized as pan-Eurasian. Haplogroup N is one of the two major trunks emerging from the original African root, and dates to approximately 65,000 years ago. Interestingly, several sub-haplogroups of the N cluster—haplogroup N1 and derivative lineages—have been detected in the Near East, suggesting either early divergence near the root of haplogroup N or subsequent migrations back towards western Eurasia following the original dispersal into east Eurasia. Future work will further document the historical distribution of this root haplogroup and closely related haplogroups within the N cluster.

Lapidus - L2a: African Origin. Part of the L cluster of haplogroups, which has been concretely characterized as representing the original human mitochondrial lineage, haplogroup L2a is found in Africa. This haplogroup dates to approximately 55,000 years ago, and is detected in highest frequency in north, west, and central Africa. Future work will further document the historical distribution of this haplogroup and closely related haplogroups of the L cluster.

Levine - K: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup K is found through Europe, and contains multiple closely related lineages indicating a recent population expansion. The origin of haplogroup K dates to approximately 16,000 years ago, and it has been suggested that individuals with this haplogroup took part in the pre-Neolithic expansion following the Last Glacial Maximum. 6% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Loshakoff - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Maltseva - U5a1a: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U5, with its own multiple lineages nested within, is the oldest European-specific haplogroup, and its origin dates to approximately 50,000 years ago. Most likely arising in the Near East, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U5 in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe. Haplogroup U5a1a—a lineage within haplogroup U5—arose in Europe less than 20,000 years ago, and is mainly found in northwest and north-central Europe. The modern distribution of haplogroup U5a1a suggests that individuals bearing this haplogroup were part of the populations that had tracked the retreat of ice sheets from Europe. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Marshalova - V: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup V is a primarily European haplogroup and underwent an expansion within Europe beginning approximately 13,000 years ago. Though it occurs at low frequency throughout Europe, it is interesting to note that the highest frequency of haplogroup V is found among the Saami in Finland and the Catalunya region of Spain. Some evidence suggests that individuals bearing haplogroup V participated in the colonization of Europe following the last period of glaciation. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup. 5% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Melaniuk - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Mirkin - K: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup K is found through Europe, and contains multiple closely related lineages indicating a recent population expansion. The origin of haplogroup K dates to approximately 16,000 years ago, and it has been suggested that individuals with this haplogroup took part in the pre-Neolithic expansion following the Last Glacial Maximum. 6% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Muha - U5a1a: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U5, with its own multiple lineages nested within, is the oldest European-specific haplogroup, and its origin dates to approximately 50,000 years ago. Most likely arising in the Near East, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U5 in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe. Haplogroup U5a1a—a lineage within haplogroup U5—arose in Europe less than 20,000 years ago, and is mainly found in northwest and north-central Europe. The modern distribution of haplogroup U5a1a suggests that individuals bearing this haplogroup were part of the populations that had tracked the retreat of ice sheets from Europe. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Myllyoja - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Nazarova - H1b is detected at its highest frequency in Eastern Europe and North Central Europe. It is also found in about 5% of haplogroup H lineages in Siberian Mansis. This branch is about 14,000 years old, and while some H1b samples have been found in the Near East, they may be present there due to more recent migrations from Europe.

Nikitenko - I: European Origin. Principally a European haplogroup, haplogroup I is detected at very low frequency across west Eurasia with slightly greater representation in northern and western Europe. Given its wide, but sparse, distribution, it is likely that it was present in those populations that first colonized Europe. This hypothesis is supported by the estimate its age—approximately 30,000 years.

Nikolenko - J: Semitic Origin. The mitochondrial haplogroup J contains several sub-lineages. The original haplogroup J originated in the Near East approximately 50,000 years ago. Within Europe, sub-lineages of haplogroup J have distinct and interesting distributions. Haplogroup J*—the root lineage of haplogroup J—is found distributed throughout Europe, but at a relatively low frequency. Haplogroup J is generally considered one of the prominent lineages that was part of the Neolithic spread of agriculture into Europe from the Near East beginning approximately 10,000 years ago. 17% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Nikolskaya - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Novikova - K: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup K is found through Europe, and contains multiple closely related lineages indicating a recent population expansion. The origin of haplogroup K dates to approximately 16,000 years ago, and it has been suggested that individuals with this haplogroup took part in the pre-Neolithic expansion following the Last Glacial Maximum. 6% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Obrenovich - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Öhman - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Os'mina - H6a: Middle Eastern Origin. This sub-haplogroup is one of the oldest branches of haplogroup H. Its age is estimated at around 26,000 years. It is one of the most frequent branches of H found among Arabian lineages, and is the most frequent branch among those found in Central Asia. It likely originated in the Middle East or Central Asia. H6 is also found at very low frequencies in Europe. 40% of modern day Europeans are haplogroup H.

Pecherina - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Perevozchikova - U4: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U4 has its origin in the Upper Palaeolithic, dating to approximately 25,000 years ago. It is widely distributed in Europe, and has been implicated in the expansion of modern humans into Europe occurring before the Last Glacial Maximum. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Porshneva - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Proskovia - J*: Semitic Origin. The mitochondrial haplogroup J contains several sub-lineages. The original haplogroup J originated in the Near East approximately 50,000 years ago. Within Europe, sub-lineages of haplogroup J have distinct and interesting distributions. Haplogroup J*—the root lineage of haplogroup J—is found distributed throughout Europe, but at a relatively low frequency. Haplogroup J is generally considered one of the prominent lineages that was part of the Neolithic spread of agriculture into Europe from the Near East beginning approximately 10,000 years ago. 17% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Prozapas - J*: Semitic Origin. The mitochondrial haplogroup J contains several sub-lineages. The original haplogroup J originated in the Near East approximately 50,000 years ago. Within Europe, sub-lineages of haplogroup J have distinct and interesting distributions. Haplogroup J*—the root lineage of haplogroup J—is found distributed throughout Europe, but at a relatively low frequency. Haplogroup J is generally considered one of the prominent lineages that was part of the Neolithic spread of agriculture into Europe from the Near East beginning approximately 10,000 years ago. 17% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Prudnikova - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Rubin - K: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup K is found through Europe, and contains multiple closely related lineages indicating a recent population expansion. The origin of haplogroup K dates to approximately 16,000 years ago, and it has been suggested that individuals with this haplogroup took part in the pre-Neolithic expansion following the Last Glacial Maximum. 6% of modern day Europeans
Scherz - H6a: Middle Eastern Origin. This sub-haplogroup is one of the oldest branches of haplogroup H. Its age is estimated at around 26,000 years. It is one of the most frequent branches of H found among Arabian lineages, and is the most frequent branch among those found in Central Asia. It likely originated in the Middle East or Central Asia. H6 is also found at very low frequencies in Europe. 40% of modern day Europeans are haplogroup H.

Serova - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Shcherbakova - U5: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U, with its own multiple lineages nested within, is the oldest European-specific haplogroup, and its origin dates to approximately 50,000 years ago. Most likely arising in the Near East, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U5 in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe. Interestingly, individuals with haplogroup U5 may have been come in contact with Neandertals living in Europe at the time. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Shostack - K: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup K is found through Europe, and contains multiple closely related lineages indicating a recent population expansion. The origin of haplogroup K dates to approximately 16,000 years ago, and it has been suggested that individuals with this haplogroup took part in the pre-Neolithic expansion following the Last Glacial Maximum. 6% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Sjomina - U4: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U4 has its origin in the Upper Palaeolithic, dating to approximately 25,000 years ago. It is widely distributed in Europe, and has been implicated in the expansion of modern humans into Europe occurring before the Last Glacial Maximum. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Skrzeczynska - W: European Origin. Haplogroup W is derived from the N superhaplogroup, which dates to approximately 65,000 years ago. The origin of haplogroup W dates to approximately 25,000 years ago, and it is mainly found distributed in west Eurasia (or Europe). It is likely that individuals bearing this lineage participated in the expansion into the bulk of Europe following the Last Glacial Maximum. Future work, including obtaining more samples from central Asia, will further refine the historical distribution of this haplogroup and better determine the role it played in the peopling of Europe.

Sokolova - U4: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U4 has its origin in the Upper Palaeolithic, dating to approximately 25,000 years ago. It is widely distributed in Europe, and has been implicated in the expansion of modern humans into Europe occurring before the Last Glacial Maximum. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Spiridonova - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Stasiowski - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Steffel - J*: Semitic Origin. The mitochondrial haplogroup J contains several sub-lineages. The original haplogroup J originated in the Near East approximately 50,000 years ago. Within Europe, sub-lineages of haplogroup J have distinct and interesting distributions. Haplogroup J*—the root lineage of haplogroup J—is found distributed throughout Europe, but at a relatively low frequency. Haplogroup J is generally considered one of the prominent lineages that was part of the Neolithic spread of agriculture into Europe from the Near East beginning approximately 10,000 years ago. 17% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Sviridenkova - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe. 

Tarkova - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Tserkovnokova - U5: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U, with its own multiple lineages nested within, is the oldest European-specific haplogroup, and its origin dates to approximately 50,000 years ago. Most likely arising in the Near East, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U5 in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe. Interestingly, individuals with haplogroup U5 may have been come in contact with Neandertals living in Europe at the time. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Tumielewicz - T2: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial haplogroup T is best characterized as a European lineage. With an origin in the Near East greater than 45,000 years ago, the major sub-lineages of haplogroup T entered Europe around the time of the Neolithic 10,000 years ago. Once in Europe, these sub-lineages underwent a dramatic expansion associated with the arrival of agriculture in Europe. Haplogroup T2 is one of the older sub-lineages and may have been present in Europe as early as the Late Upper Palaeolithic. 9% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Turzynske - W1c: European Origin. Haplogroup W is derived from the N superhaplogroup, which dates to approximately 65,000 years ago. The origin of haplogroup W dates to approximately 25,000 years ago, and it is mainly found distributed in west Eurasia (or Europe). It is likely that individuals bearing this lineage participated in the expansion into the bulk of Europe following the Last Glacial Maximum. Future work, including obtaining more samples from central Asia, will further refine the historical distribution of this haplogroup and better determine the role it played in the peopling of Europe.

Vasilyeva - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Vaslavsky - T2: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial haplogroup T is best characterized as a European lineage. With an origin in the Near East greater than 45,000 years ago, the major sub-lineages of haplogroup T entered Europe around the time of the Neolithic 10,000 years ago. Once in Europe, these sub-lineages underwent a dramatic expansion associated with the arrival of agriculture in Europe. Haplogroup T2 is one of the older sub-lineages and may have been present in Europe as early as the Late Upper Palaeolithic. 9% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Volkova - U5: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U, with its own multiple lineages nested within, is the oldest European-specific haplogroup, and its origin dates to approximately 50,000 years ago. Most likely arising in the Near East, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U5 in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe. Interestingly, individuals with haplogroup U5 may have been come in contact with Neandertals living in Europe at the time. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Warszawiak - HV1b: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup HV1 is a primarily European haplogroup that was present in Europe beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. It occurs in very low frequency throughout Europe, and some descendant lineages of the original haplogroup HV1 appear in the Near East as a result of migration. It was probably one of the original mitochondrial haplogroups in Europe, and likely pre-dates the occurrence of farming in Europe. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

Wassiluk - U4: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U4 has its origin in the Upper Palaeolithic, dating to approximately 25,000 years ago. It is widely distributed in Europe, and has been implicated in the expansion of modern humans into Europe occurring before the Last Glacial Maximum. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin. 

Waszczynska - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Windreich - HV1b: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup HV1 is a primarily European haplogroup that was present in Europe beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. It occurs in very low frequency throughout Europe, and some descendant lineages of the original haplogroup HV1 appear in the Near East as a result of migration. It was probably one of the original mitochondrial haplogroups in Europe, and likely pre-dates the occurrence of farming in Europe. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

Yarnyh - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Yokubaitis - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Zaharova - K: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup K is found through Europe, and contains multiple closely related lineages indicating a recent population expansion. The origin of haplogroup K dates to approximately 16,000 years ago, and it has been suggested that individuals with this haplogroup took part in the pre-Neolithic expansion following the Last Glacial Maximum. 6% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Zeltser - K: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup K is found through Europe, and contains multiple closely related lineages indicating a recent population expansion. The origin of haplogroup K dates to approximately 16,000 years ago, and it has been suggested that individuals with this haplogroup took part in the pre-Neolithic expansion following the Last Glacial Maximum. 6% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Zimarskaya - T1: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial haplogroup T is best characterized as a European lineage. With an origin in the Near East greater than 45,000 years ago, the major sub-lineages of haplogroup T entered Europe around the time of the Neolithic 10,000 years ago. Once in Europe, these sub-lineages underwent a dramatic expansion associated with the arrival of agriculture in Europe. The origin of haplogroup T1 dates to at least 6,000 years ago, and today, we find haplogroup T1 distributed in populations living in southeast, central, and northwestern Europe. 9% of modern day Europeans share this origin.