Guanches-Canary Islands-DNA Project - Results

Y-DNA Results:

Alberto - E1b1b1b2: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Berbers, the Carthaginians, and the Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Aquino - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Arbelo - I2b: Nordic (Northwestern European) origin. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and the Vandals (an Eastern Germanic people) established themselves on the Iberian Peninsula. Less than 100 years later the Visigoths (an Eastern Germanic people) conquered Iberia, after they had conquered Rome, and settled there in the year 507 AD. The Visigoths’ ancient homeland was Sweden, which they had left around Christ's time. These three Nordic peoples brought Haplogroup I and sub-haplogroups I1 and I2 into Iberia. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Baez - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Barreto - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of France. 50% of modern day Frenchmen share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Barreto - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Batista - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of France. 50% of modern day Frenchmen share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Bellot - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of France. 50% of modern day Frenchmen share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Benavides - E1b1b1b2: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Berbers, the Carthaginians, and the Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Benitez - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Betancourt - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Blanco - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Brito - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Cabrera - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Caceres - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Camacho - E1b1b1b2: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Berbers, the Carthaginians, and the Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Campos - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Candelaria - E1b1b1b2: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Berbers, the Carthaginians, and the Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Carbajal - I2a: Balkans of Europe. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and the Vandals (an Eastern Germanic people) established themselves on the Iberian Peninsula. Less than 100 years later the Visigoths (an Eastern Germanic people) conquered Iberia, after they had conquered Rome, and settled there in the year 507 AD. The Visigoths’ ancient homeland was Sweden, which they had left around Christ's time. These three Nordic peoples brought Haplogroup I and sub-haplogroups I1 and I2 into Iberia. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. I2a is found predominately in the Balkans where it probably mutated from "I". It is also found significantly in Sardinia and the Basque country of Spain (I2a2).

Casanova - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Castro - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Chao - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Chinea Y Correa - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Colina - G2: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Alan Sarmatians were military allies of the Vandals and the Suebi during the conquest of Iberia, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup G2 in Spain. The Alan Sarmatians' ancient homeland was the Caucasus Mountains. About 8% of northern Spaniards share this origin.

Cruz - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Delgado - E1b1b1b2: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Berbers, the Carthaginians, and the Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Delgado - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Delgado - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) origin. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and the Vandals (an Eastern Germanic people) established themselves on the Iberian Peninsula. Less than 100 years later the Visigoths (an Eastern Germanic people) conquered Iberia, after they had conquered Rome, and settled there in the year 507 AD. The Visigoths’ ancient homeland was Sweden, which they had left around Christ's time. These three Nordic peoples brought Haplogroup I and sub-haplogroups I1 and I2 into Iberia. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Díaz - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Diez - E1b1b1b2: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Berbers, the Carthaginians, and the Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Domínguez - J: Semitic origin. Haplogroup J is found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Dorado - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Echazabal - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Encarnacion - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Espinosa - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Esquer - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Falcon - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Fernandez - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Figueroa - T: Eurasian origin. This Haplogroup is about 40,000 years old. T is believed to have originated in Central Asia, and have diffused outward in many directions - perhaps migrating north to the Baltic, and most definitely moving south to the Middle East and the Mediterranean. The Phoenicians belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. In a DNA study done in Spain it was found in 10.7% of those sampled in the Cadiz area of Spain.

Galvan - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

García - E1b1b1b2: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Berbers, the Carthaginians, and the Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

García - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Garza - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Gaspar - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Gershoni - E1b1b1b2: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Berbers, the Carthaginians, and the Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Gomez - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Gomez - G2: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Alan Sarmatians were military allies of the Vandals and the Suebi during the conquest of Iberia, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup G2 in Spain. The Alan Sarmatians' ancient homeland was the Caucasus Mountains. About 8% of northern Spaniards share this origin.

Gonzáles - J1: Semitic origin. Haplogroup J is found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

González - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

González - E1b1b1b2: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Berbers, the Carthaginians, and the Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

González - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Guanche - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Gutierrez - E1b1b1b2: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Berbers, the Carthaginians, and the Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Hernández - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Hernández - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) origin. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and the Vandals (an Eastern Germanic people) established themselves on the Iberian Peninsula. Less than 100 years later the Visigoths (an Eastern Germanic people) conquered Iberia, after they had conquered Rome, and settled there in the year 507 AD. The Visigoths’ ancient homeland was Sweden, which they had left around Christ's time. These three Nordic peoples brought Haplogroup I and sub-haplogroups I1 and I2 into Iberia. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Hernández - E1b1b1b2: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Berbers, the Carthaginians, and the Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Hernández - E1b1b: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Romans belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. 

Herrera - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) origin. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and the Vandals (an Eastern Germanic people) established themselves on the Iberian Peninsula. Less than 100 years later the Visigoths (an Eastern Germanic people) conquered Iberia, after they had conquered Rome, and settled there in the year 507 AD. The Visigoths’ ancient homeland was Sweden, which they had left around Christ's time. These three Nordic peoples brought Haplogroup I and sub-haplogroups I1 and I2 into Iberia. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Leon - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

López - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

López - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) origin. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and the Vandals (an Eastern Germanic people) established themselves on the Iberian Peninsula. Less than 100 years later the Visigoths (an Eastern Germanic people) conquered Iberia, after they had conquered Rome, and settled there in the year 507 AD. The Visigoths’ ancient homeland was Sweden, which they had left around Christ's time. These three Nordic peoples brought Haplogroup I and sub-haplogroups I1 and I2 into Iberia. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

López - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Lucero - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Luján - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Luján - E1b1b1b2: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Berbers, the Carthaginians, and the Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Machado - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Marrero - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Marrero - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) origin. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and the Vandals (an Eastern Germanic people) established themselves on the Iberian Peninsula. Less than 100 years later the Visigoths (an Eastern Germanic people) conquered Iberia, after they had conquered Rome, and settled there in the year 507 AD. The Visigoths’ ancient homeland was Sweden, which they had left around Christ's time. These three Nordic peoples brought Haplogroup I and sub-haplogroups I1 and I2 into Iberia. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Marrero - J1: Semitic origin. Haplogroup J is found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Marrero - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Martín - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Martín - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Martínez - E1b1b1b2: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Berbers, the Carthaginians, and the Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Martínez - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Martínez - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Medina - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Mena - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Mojica - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Moncada - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Montero - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Morales - G2: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Alan Sarmatians were military allies of the Vandals and the Suebi during the conquest of Iberia, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup G2 in Spain. The Alan Sarmatians' ancient homeland was the Caucasus Mountains. About 8% of northern Spaniards share this origin.

Morales - E1b1a: African origin. Haplogroup E1b1a is an African lineage. It is currently hypothesized that this haplogroup dispersed south from northern Africa within the last 3,000 years with the Bantu agricultural expansion. E1b1a is also the most common lineage among African Americans. It is an old, diverse haplogroup with many branches and is found distributed throughout Africa today. It is also found at a very low frequency in North Africa and the Middle East.

Navarro - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Nuñez - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Nuñez - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) origin. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and the Vandals (an Eastern Germanic people) established themselves on the Iberian Peninsula. Less than 100 years later the Visigoths (an Eastern Germanic people) conquered Iberia, after they had conquered Rome, and settled there in the year 507 AD. The Visigoths’ ancient homeland was Sweden, which they had left around Christ's time. These three Nordic peoples brought Haplogroup I and sub-haplogroups I1 and I2 into Iberia. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Olivas - E1b1b1b2: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Berbers, the Carthaginians, and the Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Ortíz - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Ortíz - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) origin. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and the Vandals (an Eastern Germanic people) established themselves on the Iberian Peninsula. Less than 100 years later the Visigoths (an Eastern Germanic people) conquered Iberia, after they had conquered Rome, and settled there in the year 507 AD. The Visigoths’ ancient homeland was Sweden, which they had left around Christ's time. These three Nordic peoples brought Haplogroup I and sub-haplogroups I1 and I2 into Iberia. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Osuna - I2a: Balkans of Europe. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and the Vandals (an Eastern Germanic people) established themselves on the Iberian Peninsula. Less than 100 years later the Visigoths (an Eastern Germanic people) conquered Iberia, after they had conquered Rome, and settled there in the year 507 AD. The Visigoths’ ancient homeland was Sweden, which they had left around Christ's time. These three Nordic peoples brought Haplogroup I and sub-haplogroups I1 and I2 into Iberia. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. I2a is found predominately in the Balkans where it probably mutated from "I". It is also found significantly in Sardinia and the Basque country of Spain (I2a2).

Pavia - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Peña - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Pérez - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Pérez - I2b: Nordic (Northwestern European) origin. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and the Vandals (an Eastern Germanic people) established themselves on the Iberian Peninsula. Less than 100 years later the Visigoths (an Eastern Germanic people) conquered Iberia, after they had conquered Rome, and settled there in the year 507 AD. The Visigoths’ ancient homeland was Sweden, which they had left around Christ's time. These three Nordic peoples brought Haplogroup I and sub-haplogroups I1 and I2 into Iberia. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Pérez - G2: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Alan Sarmatians were military allies of the Vandals and the Suebi during the conquest of Iberia, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup G2 in Spain. The Alan Sarmatians' ancient homeland was the Caucasus Mountains. About 8% of northern Spaniards share this origin.

Pérez - E1b1b: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Romans belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Piñero - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Pino - E1b1b: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Romans belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Plada - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Plaisance - R1a: Eastern European origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. Slavonic mercenaries were used by the Moors in the second half of the 9th Century, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup R1a in Iberia. 2% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Quintero - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Ramirez - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Ramirez - E1b1b: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Romans belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Ramirez - T: Eurasian origin. This Haplogroup is about 40,000 years old. T is believed to have originated in Central Asia, and have diffused outward in many directions - perhaps migrating north to the Baltic, and most definitely moving south to the Middle East and the Mediterranean. The Phoenicians belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. In a DNA study done in Spain it was found in 10.7% of those sampled in the Cadiz area of Spain.

Ramos - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Ramos - J1: Semitic origin. Haplogroup J is found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Rivera - E1b1b: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Romans belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Robles - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Rodríguez - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Rodríguez - E1b1b: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Romans belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Rodríguez Del Toro - R1a: Eastern European origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. Slavonic mercenaries were used by the Moors in the second half of the 9th Century, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup R1a in Iberia. 2% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Rojas - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Roque - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Rosa - E1b1b: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Romans belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Rosales - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Rubio - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Ruiz - E1b1b1b2: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Berbers, the Carthaginians, and the Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

San - O3: East Asian origin. This is the major lineage of China. It is found throughout East and Southeast Asia. This lineage also occurs in central and northern Asia at low frequencies, as well as throughout the south Pacific. It has been hypothesized that this lineage may have spread through the south Pacific in the same wave as haplogroup O1.

Sánchez - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Sánchez - E: African origin. This lineage originates in Africa and is restricted to African populations.

Santana - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Santana - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Sepulveda - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Sierra - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Socarraz - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Solomon - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Suárez - E1b1b1b2: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Berbers, the Carthaginians, and the Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Torres - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Torres - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) origin. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and the Vandals (an Eastern Germanic people) established themselves on the Iberian Peninsula. Less than 100 years later the Visigoths (an Eastern Germanic people) conquered Iberia, after they had conquered Rome, and settled there in the year 507 AD. The Visigoths’ ancient homeland was Sweden, which they had left around Christ's time. These three Nordic peoples brought Haplogroup I and sub-haplogroups I1 and I2 into Iberia. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Venegas - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Verdugo - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Yan - O3: East Asian origin. This is the major lineage of China. It is found throughout East and Southeast Asia. This lineage also occurs in central and northern Asia at low frequencies, as well as throughout the south Pacific. It has been hypothesized that this lineage may have spread through the south Pacific in the same wave as haplogroup O1.

Mt-DNA Results:

Barreto de López - U5a: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U5, with its own multiple lineages nested within, is the oldest European-specific haplogroup, and its origin dates to approximately 50,000 years ago. Most likely arising in the Near East, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U5 in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe. Haplogroup U5a—a lineage within U5—is somewhat younger, dating to approximately 40,000 years ago, and is mostly distributed in southern Europe. Interestingly, individuals with haplogroup U5 and U5a may have been come in contact with Neandertals living in Europe at the time. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Betancourt - L3e: African Origin. Part of the L cluster of haplogroups, which has been concretely characterized as representing the original human mitochondrial lineage, haplogroup L3e is found in Africa. This haplogroup dates to approximately 50,000 years ago, and is detected primarily in sub-equatorial Africa. Future work will further document the historical distribution of this haplogroup and closely related haplogroups of the L cluster.

Brito - A: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup A is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 30,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the origin and role of individuals bearing haplogroup A.

Cabrera - L3: African Origin. Part of the L cluster of haplogroups, which has been concretely characterized as representing the original human mitochondrial lineage, haplogroup L3 is found in Africa. This haplogroup dates to approximately 60,000 years ago, and is detected throughout Africa. Future work will further document the historical distribution of this haplogroup and closely related haplogroups of the L cluster.

Cardoso - J: Semitic Origin. The mitochondrial haplogroup J contains several sub-lineages. The original haplogroup J originated in the Near East approximately 50,000 years ago. Within Europe, sub-lineages of haplogroup J have distinct and interesting distributions. Haplogroup J* —the root lineage of haplogroup J—is found distributed throughout Europe, but at a relatively low frequency. Haplogroup J* is generally considered one of the prominent lineages that was part of the Neolithic spread of agriculture into Europe from the Near East beginning approximately 10,000 years ago. 17% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Carrion - L2b: African Origin. Part of the L cluster of haplogroups, which has been concretely characterized as representing the original human mitochondrial lineage, haplogroup L2 is found in Africa. This haplogroup dates to approximately 70,000 years ago, and is detected in highest frequency in north, west, and central Africa. Future work will further document the historical distribution of this haplogroup and closely related haplogroups of the L cluster.

Carsalla - U6: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U6 is among the oldest of the U haplogroups with an origin approximately 50,000 years ago. It is a rare, but ancient haplogroup, and individuals bearing this lineage out of the Near East may have encountered Neandertals as they moved around what is now the southern Mediterranean basin. In modern populations, it is found at highest frequency in Berber-speaking populations of North Africa and the Canary Islands. Its presence in Portugal and Spain is the result of recent admixture most likely related to the Moorish occupation of Iberia. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Crespo - C: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup C is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 40,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the role of individuals bearing haplogroup C.

De Jesus - L3: African Origin. Part of the L cluster of haplogroups, which has been concretely characterized as representing the original human mitochondrial lineage, haplogroup L3 is found in Africa. This haplogroup dates to approximately 60,000 years ago, and is detected throughout Africa. Future work will further document the historical distribution of this haplogroup and closely related haplogroups of the L cluster.

Delgado - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. Today, about 30% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup H appear in the Near East as a result of migration. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

Domínguez - A: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup A is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 30,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the origin and role of individuals bearing haplogroup A.

Dorado - J: Semitic Origin. The mitochondrial haplogroup J contains several sub-lineages. The original haplogroup J originated in the Near East approximately 50,000 years ago. Within Europe, sub-lineages of haplogroup J have distinct and interesting distributions. Haplogroup J* —the root lineage of haplogroup J—is found distributed throughout Europe, but at a relatively low frequency. Haplogroup J* is generally considered one of the prominent lineages that was part of the Neolithic spread of agriculture into Europe from the Near East beginning approximately 10,000 years ago. 17% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Duarte - L3b: African Origin. Part of the L cluster of haplogroups, which has been concretely characterized as representing the original human mitochondrial lineage, haplogroup L3b is found in Africa. This haplogroup dates to approximately 20,000 years ago, and is detected in highest frequency in north and west Africa. Future work will further document the historical distribution of this haplogroup and closely related haplogroups of the L cluster.

Duran - U6b: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U6 is among the oldest of the U haplogroups with an origin approximately 50,000 years ago. It is a rare, but ancient haplogroup, and individuals bearing this lineage out of the Near East may have encountered Neandertals as they moved around what is now the southern Mediterranean basin. In modern populations, it is found at highest frequency in Berber-speaking populations of North Africa and the Canary Islands. Its presence in Portugal and Spain is the result of recent admixture most likely related to the Moorish occupation of Iberia. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Escalera - L3: African Origin. Part of the L cluster of haplogroups, which has been concretely characterized as representing the original human mitochondrial lineage, haplogroup L3 is found in Africa. This haplogroup dates to approximately 60,000 years ago, and is detected throughout Africa. Future work will further document the historical distribution of this haplogroup and closely related haplogroups of the L cluster.

Estevez - L3: African Origin. Part of the L cluster of haplogroups, which has been concretely characterized as representing the original human mitochondrial lineage, haplogroup L3 is found in Africa. This haplogroup dates to approximately 60,000 years ago, and is detected throughout Africa. Future work will further document the historical distribution of this haplogroup and closely related haplogroups of the L cluster.

Fonseca - L3: African Origin. Part of the L cluster of haplogroups, which has been concretely characterized as representing the original human mitochondrial lineage, haplogroup L3 is found in Africa. This haplogroup dates to approximately 60,000 years ago, and is detected throughout Africa. Future work will further document the historical distribution of this haplogroup and closely related haplogroups of the L cluster.

Franco - C: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup C is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 40,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the role of individuals bearing haplogroup C.

García - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. Today, about 30% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup H appear in the Near East as a result of migration. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

García Suarez - L2a: African Origin. Part of the L cluster of haplogroups, which has been concretely characterized as representing the original human mitochondrial lineage, haplogroup L2a is found in Africa. This haplogroup dates to approximately 55,000 years ago, and is detected in highest frequency in north, west, and central Africa. Future work will further document the historical distribution of this haplogroup and closely related haplogroups of the L cluster.

Garin - U6a1: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U6 is among the oldest of the U haplogroups with an origin approximately 50,000 years ago. It is a rare, but ancient haplogroup, and individuals bearing this lineage out of the Near East may have encountered Neandertals as they moved around what is now the southern Mediterranean basin. In modern populations, it is found at highest frequency in Berber-speaking populations of North Africa and the Canary Islands. Its presence in Portugal and Spain is the result of recent admixture most likely related to the Moorish occupation of Iberia. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Garza Montemayor - U3a: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U8 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U3 is found distributed throughout Europe, appearing, for example, in higher frequencies in Sweden, Georgia, and Bulgaria, and is estimated to have originated more than 12,000 years ago. A sublineage of haplogroup U3 is found distributed in southeast Europe, and it has been suggested that this lineage was part of the Neolithic expansion bringing agriculture to Europe from the Near East. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Gines - U5: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U, with its own multiple lineages nested within, is the oldest European-specific haplogroup, and its origin dates to approximately 50,000 years ago. Most likely arising in the Near East, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U5 in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe. Interestingly, individuals with haplogroup U5 may have been come in contact with Neandertals living in Europe at the time. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Gómez - L2: African Origin. Part of the L cluster of haplogroups, which has been concretely characterized as representing the original human mitochondrial lineage, haplogroup L2 is found in Africa. This haplogroup dates to approximately 70,000 years ago, and is detected in highest frequency in north, west, and central Africa. Future work will further document the historical distribution of this haplogroup and closely related haplogroups of the L cluster.

Gómez - A: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup A is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 30,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the origin and role of individuals bearing haplogroup A.

González - A: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup A is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 30,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the origin and role of individuals bearing haplogroup A.

Hernández - D: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup D is primarily found in the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 20,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the role of individuals bearing haplogroup D.

Hernández Barroso - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. Today, about 30% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup H appear in the Near East as a result of migration. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

Leon Jerez - T2: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial haplogroup T is best characterized as a European lineage. With an origin in the Near East greater than 45,000 years ago, the major sub-lineages of haplogroup T entered Europe around the time of the Neolithic 10,000 years ago. Once in Europe, these sub-lineages underwent a dramatic expansion associated with the arrival of agriculture in Europe. Haplogroup T2 is one of the older sub-lineages and may have been present in Europe as early as the Late Upper Palaeolithic. 9% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Maldonado - U: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U8 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U*, with its own multiple lineages nested within, dates to older than 50,000 years ago. Most likely originating in central Asia, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U* in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe. Interestingly, individuals with haplogroup U* may have been come in contact with Neanderthals living in Europe at the time. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Martínez - A: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup A is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 30,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the origin and role of individuals bearing haplogroup A.

Medina - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. Today, about 30% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup H appear in the Near East as a result of migration. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

Mendez - T2: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial haplogroup T is best characterized as a European lineage. With an origin in the Near East greater than 45,000 years ago, the major sub-lineages of haplogroup T entered Europe around the time of the Neolithic 10,000 years ago. Once in Europe, these sub-lineages underwent a dramatic expansion associated with the arrival of agriculture in Europe. Haplogroup T2 is one of the older sub-lineages and may have been present in Europe as early as the Late Upper Palaeolithic. 9% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Mendoza - U5a: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U5, with its own multiple lineages nested within, is the oldest European-specific haplogroup, and its origin dates to approximately 50,000 years ago. Most likely arising in the Near East, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U5 in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe. Haplogroup U5a—a lineage within U5—is somewhat younger, dating to approximately 40,000 years ago, and is mostly distributed in southern Europe. Interestingly, individuals with haplogroup U5 and U5a may have been come in contact with Neandertals living in Europe at the time. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Mendoza - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. Today, about 30% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup H appear in the Near East as a result of migration. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.
Mestril - J: Semitic Origin. The mitochondrial haplogroup J contains several sub-lineages. The original haplogroup J originated in the Near East approximately 50,000 years ago. Within Europe, sub-lineages of haplogroup J have distinct and interesting distributions. Haplogroup J* —the root lineage of haplogroup J—is found distributed throughout Europe, but at a relatively low frequency. Haplogroup J* is generally considered one of the prominent lineages that was part of the Neolithic spread of agriculture into Europe from the Near East beginning approximately 10,000 years ago. 17% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Morales Oramas - U6a1: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U6 is among the oldest of the U haplogroups with an origin approximately 50,000 years ago. It is a rare, but ancient haplogroup, and individuals bearing this lineage out of the Near East may have encountered Neandertals as they moved around what is now the southern Mediterranean basin. In modern populations, it is found at highest frequency in Berber-speaking populations of North Africa and the Canary Islands. Its presence in Portugal and Spain is the result of recent admixture most likely related to the Moorish occupation of Iberia. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Navarro y Torres - T2: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial haplogroup T is best characterized as a European lineage. With an origin in the Near East greater than 45,000 years ago, the major sub-lineages of haplogroup T entered Europe around the time of the Neolithic 10,000 years ago. Once in Europe, these sub-lineages underwent a dramatic expansion associated with the arrival of agriculture in Europe. Haplogroup T2 is one of the older sub-lineages and may have been present in Europe as early as the Late Upper Palaeolithic. 9% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Nunez - U6b: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U6 is among the oldest of the U haplogroups with an origin approximately 50,000 years ago. It is a rare, but ancient haplogroup, and individuals bearing this lineage out of the Near East may have encountered Neandertals as they moved around what is now the southern Mediterranean basin. In modern populations, it is found at highest frequency in Berber-speaking populations of North Africa and the Canary Islands. Its presence in Portugal and Spain is the result of recent admixture most likely related to the Moorish occupation of Iberia. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Ortiz - A: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup A is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 30,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the origin and role of individuals bearing haplogroup A.

Pérez - U5a: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U5, with its own multiple lineages nested within, is the oldest European-specific haplogroup, and its origin dates to approximately 50,000 years ago. Most likely arising in the Near East, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U5 in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe. Haplogroup U5a—a lineage within U5—is somewhat younger, dating to approximately 40,000 years ago, and is mostly distributed in southern Europe. Interestingly, individuals with haplogroup U5 and U5a may have been come in contact with Neandertals living in Europe at the time. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Pérez - W: Eurasian Origin. Haplogroup W is derived from the N superhaplogroup, which dates to approximately 65,000 years ago. The origin of haplogroup W dates to approximately 25,000 years ago, and it is mainly found distributed in west Eurasia (or Europe). It is likely that individuals bearing this lineage participated in the expansion into the bulk of Europe following the Last Glacial Maximum. Future work, including obtaining more samples from central Asia, will further refine the historical distribution of this haplogroup and better determine the role it played in the peopling of Europe.

Portes - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. Today, about 30% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup H appear in the Near East as a result of migration. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

Pulido y García - U6b: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U6 is among the oldest of the U haplogroups with an origin approximately 50,000 years ago. It is a rare, but ancient haplogroup, and individuals bearing this lineage out of the Near East may have encountered Neandertals as they moved around what is now the southern Mediterranean basin. In modern populations, it is found at highest frequency in Berber-speaking populations of North Africa and the Canary Islands. Its presence in Portugal and Spain is the result of recent admixture most likely related to the Moorish occupation of Iberia. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Robaina - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. Today, about 30% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup H appear in the Near East as a result of migration. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

Rodríguez - J1: Semitic Origin. The mitochondrial haplogroup J contains several sub-lineages. The original haplogroup J originated in the Near East approximately 50,000 years ago. Within Europe, sub-lineages of haplogroup J have distinct and interesting distributions. Haplogroup J1 is found distributed throughout Europe, from Britain to Iberia and along the Mediterranean coast. This widespread distribution strongly suggests that haplogroup J1 was part of the Neolithic spread of agriculture into Europe from the Near East beginning approximately 10,000 years ago. 17% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Rodríguez - J*: Semitic Origin. The mitochondrial haplogroup J contains several sub-lineages. The original haplogroup J originated in the Near East approximately 50,000 years ago. Within Europe, sub-lineages of haplogroup J have distinct and interesting distributions. Haplogroup J*—the root lineage of haplogroup J—is found distributed throughout Europe, but at a relatively low frequency. Haplogroup J is generally considered one of the prominent lineages that was part of the Neolithic spread of agriculture into Europe from the Near East beginning approximately 10,000 years ago. 17% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Roque - U6a1: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U6 is among the oldest of the U haplogroups with an origin approximately 50,000 years ago. It is a rare, but ancient haplogroup, and individuals bearing this lineage out of the Near East may have encountered Neandertals as they moved around what is now the southern Mediterranean basin. In modern populations, it is found at highest frequency in Berber-speaking populations of North Africa and the Canary Islands. Its presence in Portugal and Spain is the result of recent admixture most likely related to the Moorish occupation of Iberia. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Ruiz - C: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup C is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 40,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the role of individuals bearing haplogroup C.

Sánchez - C: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup C is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 40,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the role of individuals bearing haplogroup C.

Santiago - L1b: African Origin. Part of the L cluster of haplogroups, which has been concretely characterized as representing the original human mitochondrial lineage, haplogroup L1b is found in Africa. This haplogroup dates to approximately 30,000 years ago, and is detected in highest frequency in north, west, and central Africa. Future work will further document the historical distribution of this haplogroup and closely related haplogroups of the L cluster.

Sepulveda - U5: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U, with its own multiple lineages nested within, is the oldest European-specific haplogroup, and its origin dates to approximately 50,000 years ago. Most likely arising in the Near East, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U5 in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe. Interestingly, individuals with haplogroup U5 may have been come in contact with Neandertals living in Europe at the time. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Suárez - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. Today, about 30% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup H appear in the Near East as a result of migration. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

Trejo - A: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup A is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 30,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the origin and role of individuals bearing haplogroup A.

Valadis - K: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup K is found through Europe, and contains multiple closely related lineages indicating a recent population expansion. The origin of haplogroup K dates to approximately 16,000 years ago, and it has been suggested that individuals with this haplogroup took part in the pre-Neolithic expansion following the Last Glacial Maximum. 6% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Vento - U6c: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U8 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U*, with its own multiple lineages nested within, dates to older than 50,000 years ago. Most likely originating in central Asia, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U* in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe. Interestingly, individuals with haplogroup U* may have been come in contact with Neanderthals living in Europe at the time. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.