Galicia, Spain DNA Project - Results

Y-DNA Results:

Aires - O3a3: East Asian origin. Haplogroup O3 is the major lineage of China. It is found throughout East and Southeast Asia. This lineage also occurs in central and northern Asia at low frequencies, as well as throughout the south Pacific. It has been hypothesized that this lineage may have spread through the south Pacific in the same wave as haplogroup O1.

Alonso - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) origin. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and their king Hermerico established themselves in territories making up the NW part of Spain, the Roman Galicia. The number of the Suebic invaders is estimated in less than 30,000 people, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup I in Galicia, Spain. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. While haplogroup I originated in Scandinavia, there were later mutations of I resulting in subhaplogroups I1 and I2 which are thought to have spread out early from France.

Alonso - E1b1b: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Romans belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Alonso - E1b1b1b2: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Berbers, the Carthaginians, and the Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of the Iberian Peninsula. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Álvarez - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Álvarez - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Álvarez de González - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Alves - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Arias - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Armesto - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Bahamonde - T: Eurasian origin. This Haplogroup is about 40,000 years old. T is believed to have originated in Central Asia, and have diffused outward in many directions - perhaps migrating north to the Baltic, and most definitely moving south to the Middle East and the Mediterranean. The Phoenicians belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of the Iberian Peninsula. In a DNA study done in Spain it was found in 10.7% of those sampled in the Cadiz area of Spain.

Ballesteros - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Barreto - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Barreto - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Benavides - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Blanco - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Blanco - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) origin. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and their king Hermerico established themselves in territories making up the NW part of Spain, the Roman Galicia. The number of the Suebic invaders is estimated in less than 30,000 people, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup I in Galicia, Spain. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. While haplogroup I originated in Scandinavia, there were later mutations of I resulting in subhaplogroups I1 and I2 which are thought to have spread out early from France.

Blanco - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Cabanas - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Calvete - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Campos - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Cao - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Cárdenas - E1b1b: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Romans belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Casal - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Casanova - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Castro - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Castro - I2a2: Balkans of Europe. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and their king Hermerico established themselves in territories making up the NW part of Spain, the Roman Galicia. The number of the Suebic invaders is estimated in less than 30,000 people, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup I and subhaplogroup I2a in Galicia, Spain. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. I2a is found predominately in the Balkans where it probably mutated from "I". It is also found significantly in Sardinia and the Basque country of Spain (I2a2).

Castro - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Cervantes - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Chao - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Chávez - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Chávez - E1b1b: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Romans belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Cortiñas - G2: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Alan Sarmatians were military allies of the Vandals and the Suebi during the conquest of Iberia, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup G2 in Spain. The Alan Sarmatians' ancient homeland was the Caucasus Mountains. About 8% of northern Spaniards share this origin.

Costa - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

DaCunha - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Díaz - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

deNoyelles - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Domínguez - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Domínguez - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) origin. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and their king Hermerico established themselves in territories making up the NW part of Spain, the Roman Galicia. The number of the Suebic invaders is estimated in less than 30,000 people, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup I in Galicia, Spain. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. While haplogroup I originated in Scandinavia, there were later mutations of I resulting in subhaplogroups I1 and I2 which are thought to have spread out early from France.

Domínguez - J: Semitic origin. Haplogroup J is found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Domínguez - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Enriquez - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Espiño - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Espinosa - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Esquer - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Faria - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Fernández - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Fernández - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) origin. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and their king Hermerico established themselves in territories making up the NW part of Spain, the Roman Galicia. The number of the Suebic invaders is estimated in less than 30,000 people, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup I in Galicia, Spain. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. While haplogroup I originated in Scandinavia, there were later mutations of I resulting in subhaplogroups I1 and I2 which are thought to have spread out early from France.

Fernández - E1b1b: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Romans belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Fernández - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Fernández - G2: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Alan Sarmatians were military allies of the Vandals and the Suebi during the conquest of Iberia, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup G2 in Spain. The Alan Sarmatians' ancient homeland was the Caucasus Mountains. About 8% of northern Spaniards share this origin.

Figueroa - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Furtado - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Gallego - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Gallego - J1: Semitic origin. Haplogroup J is found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Gallegos - G2: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Alan Sarmatians were military allies of the Vandals and the Suebi during the conquest of Iberia, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup G2 in Spain. The Alan Sarmatians' ancient homeland was the Caucasus Mountains. About 8% of northern Spaniards share this origin.

Gallegos - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

García - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

García - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) origin. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and their king Hermerico established themselves in territories making up the NW part of Spain, the Roman Galicia. The number of the Suebic invaders is estimated in less than 30,000 people, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup I in Galicia, Spain. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. While haplogroup I originated in Scandinavia, there were later mutations of I resulting in subhaplogroups I1 and I2 which are thought to have spread out early from France.

García - E1b1b1b2: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Berbers, the Carthaginians, and the Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of the Iberian Peninsula. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

García - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

García - R1a: Eastern European origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. Slavonic mercenaries were used by the Moors in the second half of the 9th Century, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup R1a in Iberia. 2% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Garrido - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Gomes dos Santos - J1: Semitic origin. Haplogroup J is found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Gonçalves da Silva - E1b1b: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Romans belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Gonzáles - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Gonzáles - E1b1b: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Romans belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

González - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

González - G2: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Alan Sarmatians were military allies of the Vandals and the Suebi during the conquest of Iberia, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup G2 in Spain. The Alan Sarmatians' ancient homeland was the Caucasus Mountains. About 8% of northern Spaniards share this origin.

González - E1b1b: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Romans belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

González - E1b1b1b2: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Berbers, the Carthaginians, and the Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of the Iberian Peninsula. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

González - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Hermilla - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Hernández - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Hernández Torres - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Hidalgo - E1b1b1b2: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Berbers, the Carthaginians, and the Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of the Iberian Peninsula. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Huerta - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Jimenez - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Lemos - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Llamas - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

López - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

López - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

López de Prado - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Lugo - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Machado - E1b1b: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Romans belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Martínez - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Martínez - E1b1b1b2: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Berbers, the Carthaginians, and the Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of the Iberian Peninsula. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Martínez - L: Turkish origin. This haplogroup is found primarily in India and Sri Lanka, and has also spread into several Middle Eastern populations (Turks, Saudis, and Pakistanis). The Seljuk Turks migrated from Central Asia into mainland Iran formerly known as Persia. They are regarded as the ancestors of the Western Turks, the present-day inhabitants of Turkey, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan.

Martínez - O2: East Asian origin. Haplogroup O2 has two primary lines, the 465 line and the M95 line. Both lines are found in Asia. The 465 line is at high frequency in Japanese and Korean populations and at low frequency in east Asia. The M95 line is found in Southeast Asian populations (Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, and southern China).

Melendez - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Melgoza - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Menendez - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Miera - I2a: Balkans of Europe. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and their king Hermerico established themselves in territories making up the NW part of Spain, the Roman Galicia. The number of the Suebic invaders is estimated in less than 30,000 people, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup I and subhaplogroup I2a in Galicia, Spain. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. I2a is found predominately in the Balkans where it probably mutated from "I". It is also found significantly in Sardinia and the Basque country of Spain (I2a2).

Montoya - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Moreira - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Mosquera - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Mosquera - R1a: Eastern European origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. Slavonic mercenaries were used by the Moors in the second half of the 9th Century, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup R1a in Iberia. 2% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Mourenza Rojo - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Munoz - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Nieves - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Ortega - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Ortega - J1: Semitic origin. Haplogroup J is found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Otero - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Ortíz - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Ortíz - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) origin. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and their king Hermerico established themselves in territories making up the NW part of Spain, the Roman Galicia. The number of the Suebic invaders is estimated in less than 30,000 people, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup I in Galicia, Spain. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. While haplogroup I originated in Scandinavia, there were later mutations of I resulting in subhaplogroups I1 and I2 which are thought to have spread out early from France.

Ortíz - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Pardo - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Peon - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Pereira - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Pérez - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Pérez - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) origin. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and their king Hermerico established themselves in territories making up the NW part of Spain, the Roman Galicia. The number of the Suebic invaders is estimated in less than 30,000 people, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup I in Galicia, Spain. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. While haplogroup I originated in Scandinavia, there were later mutations of I resulting in subhaplogroups I1 and I2 which are thought to have spread out early from France.

Pérez La Rosa - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Pérez - G2: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Alan Sarmatians were military allies of the Vandals and the Suebi during the conquest of Iberia, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup G2 in Spain. The Alan Sarmatians' ancient homeland was the Caucasus Mountains. About 8% of northern Spaniards share this origin.

Pérez Ferreiro - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) origin. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and their king Hermerico established themselves in territories making up the NW part of Spain, the Roman Galicia. The number of the Suebic invaders is estimated in less than 30,000 people, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup I in Galicia, Spain. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. While haplogroup I originated in Scandinavia, there were later mutations of I resulting in subhaplogroups I1 and I2 which are thought to have spread out early from France.

Plada - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Plascencia - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Quijano - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Rey - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Reynoso - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Rivera - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Rivera - E1b1b: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Romans belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Rivera - G2: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Alan Sarmatians were military allies of the Vandals and the Suebi during the conquest of Iberia, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup G2 in Spain. The Alan Sarmatians' ancient homeland was the Caucasus Mountains. About 8% of northern Spaniards share this origin.

Rodríguez - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Rodríguez - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) origin. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and their king Hermerico established themselves in territories making up the NW part of Spain, the Roman Galicia. The number of the Suebic invaders is estimated in less than 30,000 people, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup I in Galicia, Spain. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. While haplogroup I originated in Scandinavia, there were later mutations of I resulting in subhaplogroups I1 and I2 which are thought to have spread out early from France.

Rodríguez - E1b1b: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Romans belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Rodríguez - E1b1b1b2: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Berbers, the Carthaginians, and the Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of the Iberian Peninsula. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Rodríguez - J1: Semitic origin. Haplogroup J is found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Rodríguez - G2: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Alan Sarmatians were military allies of the Vandals and the Suebi during the conquest of Iberia, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup G2 in Spain. The Alan Sarmatians' ancient homeland was the Caucasus Mountains. About 8% of northern Spaniards share this origin.

Ros - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Roybal - L: Turkish origin. This haplogroup is found primarily in India and Sri Lanka, and has also spread into several Middle Eastern populations (Turks, Saudis, and Pakistanis). The Seljuk Turks migrated from Central Asia into mainland Iran formerly known as Persia. They are regarded as the ancestors of the Western Turks, the present-day inhabitants of Turkey, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan.

Ruiz - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Ruiz - G: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Alan Sarmatians were military allies of the Vandals and the Suebi during the conquest of Iberia, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup G2 in Spain. The Alan Sarmatians' ancient homeland was the Caucasus Mountains. About 8% of northern Spaniards share this origin.

Ruiz - J: Semitic origin. Haplogroup J is found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Saldaña - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Sánchez - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Sánchez de Iñigo - J1: Semitic origin. Haplogroup J is found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Santos - E1b1b: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Romans belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Silva - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Silva - E1b1b: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Romans belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Sosa - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Sosa - G2: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Alan Sarmatians were military allies of the Vandals and the Suebi during the conquest of Iberia, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup G2 in Spain. The Alan Sarmatians' ancient homeland was the Caucasus Mountains. About 8% of northern Spaniards share this origin.

Sotela - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Soto - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) origin. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and their king Hermerico established themselves in territories making up the NW part of Spain, the Roman Galicia. The number of the Suebic invaders is estimated in less than 30,000 people, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup I in Galicia, Spain. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. While haplogroup I originated in Scandinavia, there were later mutations of I resulting in subhaplogroups I1 and I2 which are thought to have spread out early from France.

Soto - E1b1b1b2: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Berbers, the Carthaginians, and the Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of the Iberian Peninsula. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Sotomayor - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Sousa - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Souza - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Souza - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Toledo - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Torres - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) origin. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and their king Hermerico established themselves in territories making up the NW part of Spain, the Roman Galicia. The number of the Suebic invaders is estimated in less than 30,000 people, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup I in Galicia, Spain. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. While haplogroup I originated in Scandinavia, there were later mutations of I resulting in subhaplogroups I1 and I2 which are thought to have spread out early from France.

Torres - I2a: Balkans of Europe. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and their king Hermerico established themselves in territories making up the NW part of Spain, the Roman Galicia. The number of the Suebic invaders is estimated in less than 30,000 people, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup I and subhaplogroup I2a in Galicia, Spain. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. I2a is found predominately in the Balkans where it probably mutated from "I". It is also found significantly in Sardinia and the Basque country of Spain (I2a2).

Torres - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Trujillo - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Vaca - J1: Semitic origin. Haplogroup J is found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Varela - I: Nordic (Northwestern European) origin. In 409 AD, the Suebi (a Baltic people) and their king Hermerico established themselves in territories making up the NW part of Spain, the Roman Galicia. The number of the Suebic invaders is estimated in less than 30,000 people, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup I in Galicia, Spain. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. While haplogroup I originated in Scandinavia, there were later mutations of I resulting in subhaplogroups I1 and I2 which are thought to have spread out early from France.

Vasquez - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Vega - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Vidal - R1b1: Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Villaseñor - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Ximenez Ruiz - J2: Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Sephardic Jews and Arab Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Mt-DNA Results:

Ayala - C: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup C is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 40,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the role of individuals bearing haplogroup C.

Bahamonde - X: Eastern European Origin. Haplogroup X is derived from the N superhaplogroup, which dates to approximately 65,000 years ago. The origin of haplogroup X dates to approximately 30,000 years, and is found distributed throughout the world. Originally found in Europe and thought to be only distributed regionally, the finding of haplogroup X in the Americas startled the human population genetics community. Recently, it has been discovered that there are two major sub-lineages within haplogroup X, and that the geographic distribution and relative ages of these two sub-lineages accord with previous ideas concerning the peopling of the world. Future work on this interesting haplogroup will better document the particulars of the emergence of its distribution and shed more light on regional historical contact and migration. 6% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Barreto de López - U5a: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U5, with its own multiple lineages nested within, is the oldest European-specific haplogroup, and its origin dates to approximately 50,000 years ago. Most likely arising in the Near East, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U5 in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe. Haplogroup U5a—a lineage within U5—is somewhat younger, dating to approximately 40,000 years ago, and is mostly distributed in southern Europe. Interestingly, individuals with haplogroup U5 and U5a may have been come in contact with Neandertals living in Europe at the time. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Bascuñan Matamala - X: Eastern European Origin. Haplogroup X is derived from the N superhaplogroup, which dates to approximately 65,000 years ago. The origin of haplogroup X dates to approximately 30,000 years, and is found distributed throughout the world. Originally found in Europe and thought to be only distributed regionally, the finding of haplogroup X in the Americas startled the human population genetics community. Recently, it has been discovered that there are two major sub-lineages within haplogroup X, and that the geographic distribution and relative ages of these two sub-lineages accord with previous ideas concerning the peopling of the world. Future work on this interesting haplogroup will better document the particulars of the emergence of its distribution and shed more light on regional historical contact and migration. 6% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Bouzas - W: Eurasian Origin. Haplogroup W is derived from the N superhaplogroup, which dates to approximately 65,000 years ago. The origin of haplogroup W dates to approximately 25,000 years ago, and it is mainly found distributed in west Eurasia (or Europe). It is likely that individuals bearing this lineage participated in the expansion into the bulk of Europe following the Last Glacial Maximum. Future work, including obtaining more samples from central Asia, will further refine the historical distribution of this haplogroup and better determine the role it played in the peopling of Europe.

Buch - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup H appear in the Near East as a result of migration. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

Carrion - L2b: African Origin. Part of the L cluster of haplogroups, which has been concretely characterized as representing the original human mitochondrial lineage, haplogroup L2 is found in Africa. This haplogroup dates to approximately 70,000 years ago, and is detected in highest frequency in north, west, and central Africa. Future work will further document the historical distribution of this haplogroup and closely related haplogroups of the L cluster.

Cortizas - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup H appear in the Near East as a result of migration. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

Costa - U5: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U, with its own multiple lineages nested within, is the oldest European-specific haplogroup, and its origin dates to approximately 50,000 years ago. Most likely arising in the Near East, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U5 in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe. Interestingly, individuals with haplogroup U5 may have been come in contact with Neandertals living in Europe at the time. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Díaz - U5: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U, with its own multiple lineages nested within, is the oldest European-specific haplogroup, and its origin dates to approximately 50,000 years ago. Most likely arising in the Near East, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U5 in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe. Interestingly, individuals with haplogroup U5 may have been come in contact with Neandertals living in Europe at the time. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Ensá Vásquez - U2: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U2 is found distributed in the Near East and Europe, though it is maintained a rather low frequency throughout. This sparse, yet widespread, dissemination, when combined with the presence of an allied haplogroup found in India, suggests that haplogroup U2 is very old, and was likely an early lineage of the super-haplogroup U, which arose greater than 50,000 years ago. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Fernández - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup H appear in the Near East as a result of migration. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

Fuentes - J2: Semitic Origin. The mitochondrial haplogroup J contains several sub-lineages. The original haplogroup J originated in the Near East approximately 50,000 years ago. Within Europe, sub-lineages of haplogroup J have distinctive distributions. Haplogroup J2 is particularly interesting because it has been detected in Turkey, Italy, Sardinia, Iberia, and Iceland—all populations with traditionally prominent fishing industries. This connection suggests recent migration related to the economic opportunities offered by fishing. 17% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

García - K: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup K is found through Europe, and contains multiple closely related lineages indicating a recent population expansion. The origin of haplogroup K dates to approximately 16,000 years ago, and it has been suggested that individuals with this haplogroup took part in the pre-Neolithic expansion following the Last Glacial Maximum. 6% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

García Barros - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup H appear in the Near East as a result of migration. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

Gonzales - A2: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup A is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 30,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the origin and role of individuals bearing haplogroup A.

González - J*: Semitic Origin. The mitochondrial haplogroup J contains several sub-lineages. The original haplogroup J originated in the Near East approximately 50,000 years ago. Within Europe, sub-lineages of haplogroup J have distinct and interesting distributions. Haplogroup J* —the root lineage of haplogroup J—is found distributed throughout Europe, but at a relatively low frequency. Haplogroup J* is generally considered one of the prominent lineages that was part of the Neolithic spread of agriculture into Europe from the Near East beginning approximately 10,000 years ago. 17% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Hernández - A: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup A is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 30,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the origin and role of individuals bearing haplogroup A.

Izquierdo Montalar - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup H appear in the Near East as a result of migration. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

Jimenez - A: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup A is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 30,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the origin and role of individuals bearing haplogroup A.

Lemus - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup H appear in the Near East as a result of migration. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

Leon - B: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup B is found in eastern and southeastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and using American samples dates to at least 12,500 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the role of individuals bearing haplogroup B.

Llaca - B: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup B is found in eastern and southeastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and using American samples dates to at least 12,500 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the role of individuals bearing haplogroup B.

López Armesto - T5: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial haplogroup T is best characterized as a European lineage. With an origin in the Near East greater than 45,000 years ago, the major sub-lineages of haplogroup T entered Europe around the time of the Neolithic 10,000 years ago. Once in Europe, these sub-lineages underwent a dramatic expansion associated with the arrival of agriculture in Europe. Individuals bearing the haplogroup T5 lineage likely participated in the Neolithic expansion. 9% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Martin - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup H appear in the Near East as a result of migration. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

Mercado - L3d: African Origin. Part of the L cluster of haplogroups, which has been concretely characterized as representing the original human mitochondrial lineage, haplogroup L3 is found in Africa. This haplogroup dates to approximately 60,000 years ago, and is detected throughout Africa. Future work will further document the historical distribution of this haplogroup and closely related haplogroups of the L cluster.

Nunez - U6b: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U6 is among the oldest of the U haplogroups with an origin approximately 50,000 years ago. It is a rare, but ancient haplogroup, and individuals bearing this lineage out of the Near East may have encountered Neandertals as they moved around what is now the southern Mediterranean basin. In modern populations, it is found at highest frequency in Berber-speaking populations of North Africa and the Canary Islands. Its presence in Portugal and Spain is the result of recent admixture most likely related to the Moorish occupation of Iberia. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Ortíz - A: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup A is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 30,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the origin and role of individuals bearing haplogroup A.

Palacios - B: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup B is found in eastern and southeastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and using American samples dates to at least 12,500 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the role of individuals bearing haplogroup B.

Paneque - C: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup C is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 40,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the role of individuals bearing haplogroup C.

Pardo - J*: Semitic Origin. The mitochondrial haplogroup J contains several sub-lineages. The original haplogroup J originated in the Near East approximately 50,000 years ago. Within Europe, sub-lineages of haplogroup J have distinct and interesting distributions. Haplogroup J* —the root lineage of haplogroup J—is found distributed throughout Europe, but at a relatively low frequency. Haplogroup J* is generally considered one of the prominent lineages that was part of the Neolithic spread of agriculture into Europe from the Near East beginning approximately 10,000 years ago. 17% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Pestana - L3b: African Origin. Part of the L cluster of haplogroups, which has been concretely characterized as representing the original human mitochondrial lineage, haplogroup L3b is found in Africa. This haplogroup dates to approximately 20,000 years ago, and is detected in highest frequency in north and west Africa. Future work will further document the historical distribution of this haplogroup and closely related haplogroups of the L cluster.

Pires - V: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup V is a primarily European haplogroup and underwent an expansion within Europe beginning approximately 13,000 years ago. Though it occurs at low frequency throughout Europe, it is interesting to note that the highest frequency of haplogroup V is found among the Saami in Finland and the Catalunya region of Spain. Some evidence suggests that individuals bearing haplogroup V participated in the colonization of Europe following the last period of glaciation. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup. 5% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Porras - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup H appear in the Near East as a result of migration. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

Ramirez - C: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup C is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 40,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the role of individuals bearing haplogroup C.

Reboredo Fragas - K: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup K is found through Europe, and contains multiple closely related lineages indicating a recent population expansion. The origin of haplogroup K dates to approximately 16,000 years ago, and it has been suggested that individuals with this haplogroup took part in the pre-Neolithic expansion following the Last Glacial Maximum. 6% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Rodríguez - V: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup V is a primarily European haplogroup and underwent an expansion within Europe beginning approximately 13,000 years ago. Though it occurs at low frequency throughout Europe, it is interesting to note that the highest frequency of haplogroup V is found among the Saami in Finland and the Catalunya region of Spain. Some evidence suggests that individuals bearing haplogroup V participated in the colonization of Europe following the last period of glaciation. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup. 5% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Rodríguez - K: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup K is found through Europe, and contains multiple closely related lineages indicating a recent population expansion. The origin of haplogroup K dates to approximately 16,000 years ago, and it has been suggested that individuals with this haplogroup took part in the pre-Neolithic expansion following the Last Glacial Maximum. 6% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Roque - A: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup A is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 30,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the origin and role of individuals bearing haplogroup A.

Ruiz - C: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup C is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 40,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the role of individuals bearing haplogroup C.

Sánchez - A: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup A is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 30,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the origin and role of individuals bearing haplogroup A.

Sanmartin - H3c: European Origin. H3 is the second most common branch of H. Like H1, it is found mainly in Western Europe. However, H3 is not found in significant frequencies in the Near East. It is at its highest frequency in Iberia and Sardinia, and is about 16,000 years old. While some H3 samples have been found in the Near East, they may be present there due to more recent migrations from Europe.

Santa Rosa - A: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup A is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 30,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the origin and role of individuals bearing haplogroup A.

Santiago - K: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup K is found through Europe, and contains multiple closely related lineages indicating a recent population expansion. The origin of haplogroup K dates to approximately 16,000 years ago, and it has been suggested that individuals with this haplogroup took part in the pre-Neolithic expansion following the Last Glacial Maximum. 6% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Santiago y Perez - A: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup A is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 30,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the origin and role of individuals bearing haplogroup A.

Santos - J*: Semitic Origin. The mitochondrial haplogroup J contains several sub-lineages. The original haplogroup J originated in the Near East approximately 50,000 years ago. Within Europe, sub-lineages of haplogroup J have distinct and interesting distributions. Haplogroup J* —the root lineage of haplogroup J—is found distributed throughout Europe, but at a relatively low frequency. Haplogroup J* is generally considered one of the prominent lineages that was part of the Neolithic spread of agriculture into Europe from the Near East beginning approximately 10,000 years ago. 17% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Sena Bernardes - J: Semitic Origin. The mitochondrial haplogroup J contains several sub-lineages. The original haplogroup J originated in the Near East approximately 50,000 years ago. Within Europe, sub-lineages of haplogroup J have distinct and interesting distributions. Haplogroup J*—the root lineage of haplogroup J—is found distributed throughout Europe, but at a relatively low frequency. Haplogroup J is generally considered one of the prominent lineages that was part of the Neolithic spread of agriculture into Europe from the Near East beginning approximately 10,000 years ago.

Soto - U3: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U3 is found distributed throughout Europe, appearing, for example, in higher frequencies in Sweden, Georgia, and Bulgaria, and is estimated to have originated more than 12,000 years ago. A sublineage of haplogroup U3 is found distributed in southeast Europe, and it has been suggested that this lineage was part of the Neolithic expansion bringing agriculture to Europe from the Near East. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Torre - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup H appear in the Near East as a result of migration. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

Torres - A: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup A is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 30,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the origin and role of individuals bearing haplogroup A.

Vaca - C: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup C is found in eastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 40,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the role of individuals bearing haplogroup C.

Vallejo - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup H appear in the Near East as a result of migration. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

Vargas - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup H appear in the Near East as a result of migration. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

Veiga - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup H appear in the Near East as a result of migration. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

Vidal - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup H appear in the Near East as a result of migration. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

Vidal Barcia - U5a: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U5, with its own multiple lineages nested within, is the oldest European-specific haplogroup, and its origin dates to approximately 50,000 years ago. Most likely arising in the Near East, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U5 in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe. Haplogroup U5a—a lineage within U5—is somewhat younger, dating to approximately 40,000 years ago, and is mostly distributed in southern Europe. Interestingly, individuals with haplogroup U5 and U5a may have been come in contact with Neandertals living in Europe at the time. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Vierma Rodríguez - D: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup D is primarily found in the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and dates to at least 20,000 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the role of individuals bearing haplogroup D.

Villar - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup H appear in the Near East as a result of migration. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

Villoslada - X: Eastern European Origin. Haplogroup X is derived from the N superhaplogroup, which dates to approximately 65,000 years ago. The origin of haplogroup X dates to approximately 30,000 years, and is found distributed throughout the world. Originally found in Europe and thought to be only distributed regionally, the finding of haplogroup X in the Americas startled the human population genetics community. Recently, it has been discovered that there are two major sub-lineages within haplogroup X, and that the geographic distribution and relative ages of these two sub-lineages accord with previous ideas concerning the peopling of the world. Future work on this interesting haplogroup will better document the particulars of the emergence of its distribution and shed more light on regional historical contact and migration. 6% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Viza - B: Native-American Origin. Haplogroup B is found in eastern and southeastern Eurasia and throughout the Americas. This haplogroup was present in the populations that initially colonized the pre-Columbian Americas, and using American samples dates to at least 12,500 years ago. Future work will resolve the issue of how many distinct colonization events there were in the original peopling of the Americas, and the role of individuals bearing haplogroup B.