Davis/Davies/David- Background



In the United States, the Davis surname is the 7th most commonname. They are a racially diverse group, being 64.7% white, 30.8% black, and4.5% other according to the 2000 US census. The Davies surname is the988th most common surname, and is much less racially diverse, being 91.34 %white. In Great Britain, this is reversed. There Davies isthe 6th most common surname overall, and being the most common surname in 7 ofthe 22 Welsh councils. Davis is the 54th most common surname, but is 4th in Bristol and 5th in Gloucestershire.

Saint David (c. 500 – 589) is the patron saint of Wales
. The Welsh word for David isDafydd. In Welsh, the f is pronounced as a v, the y as an I, the dd as th, soDafydd is pronounced dah-vith, which became Anglicized to Davis, or the possessive form Davies.NOTE: In Wales, I believe most still pronounceDavies as day-vis, not day-veez as in the U.S. and England.

: The purposeof the project is to supplement traditional genealogical research methodsthrough Y Chromosome DNA testing in determining project member’s paternalancestral line.


Here is the regular pricing for project members:

Y-DNA37 - 37 marker test for $149 (Non-group price is $169)
Y-DNA67 - 67 marker test for $239 (Non-group price is $268)
Y-DNA111 - 111 marker test for $339  (Non-group price is $359)

Whichever you choose now can always be upgraded later for an additional fee asshown below:

Y-DNA12to37 for $99

Y-DNA12to67for $189

Y-DNA12to111 for $339
Y-DNA25to37 for $49
Y-DNA25to67 for $148

Y-DNA25to111 for $249
Y-DNA37to67 for $99

Y-DNA37to111 for $220

Y-DNA67to111 for $129

ORDERING: Please click and read "DNA FAQ". When you are ready to orderclick "JOIN REQUEST".



FTDNA is pleased to announce the launch of Y-DNA"Third Party" uploads.

This will allow for the upload of 33 and 46-marker Y-DNAtest results from Ancestry, GeneTree and Sorensen's SMGF. This was a naturaldevelopment since the necessary tools were created to import the DNA Heritagedatabase after they ceased operations. While the DNA Heritage transfer is freeof charge as a result of that acquisition, we will be charging a nominal fee of$19 per person to import third party results into Family Tree DNA. This $19 feewill be credited to customers who order upgrades or add-ons.

For an additional $39, customers who transfer their thirdparty results will also have additional markers tested so that they can receivematches to Family Tree DNA's 25 or 37-marker level, ancestral origins, andother features of the personal page.

Please click on the following link if you are interested inordering the Third Party transfer:


What do you get when you transfer third party results?

The $19 fee will provide the customer with a Family Tree DNApersonal page which will allow them to join Family Tree DNA projects freely.This means results will be available to the administrator and included on theproject's public page for comparison with other project members.

The $58 fee ($19 transfer fee + $39 for the added markers toFamily Tree DNA's 25 or 37-marker level) will include the same featuresprovided to Family Tree DNA customers in their personal pages.

For any additional questions related to Third Partytransfer, please refer to our FAQ section for help.

 RESULTS: To see the Results Chart click onthe "Y-DNA Results" box in the top row. The Results Chart isautomatically updated by Family Tree DNA computers, except for the Most DistantAncestor information which you update under MY MAPS/PLOT ANCESTRAL LOCATIONS onyour personal webpage, or you can e-mail the Group Administrator with thisinformation. FAILURE TO PROVIDE YOUR MOST DISTANT ANCESTOR INFORMATION WILLRESULT IN REMOVAL FROM THE PROJECT. Since the Results Chart has limitedroom for Most Distant Ancestor information, project members are encouraged toeither build their family tree using the new FAMILY TREE option , or invest insoftware to create a GEDCOM file which is uploaded on your personal webpage.

Beginning , Personal Ancestor File (PAF) willbe retired and will no longer be available for download or support. PAF usersshould consider alternative products to meet their ongoing personal genealogymanagement needs. For full details and for information on alternative products,please visit http://familysearch.org/PAF

If you need help interpreting your results, click on RESOUCES/INTERPRETINGRESULTS eBOOK in the top row of your personal MyFTDNA webpage. This booklet hasuseful information for interpreting your results.

Please note the website http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~davisdna/ isno longer up to date as we do not have a webmaster to support it.

You can use the DAVIS-DNA mailing list IA for the discussionand sharing of information regarding DNA projects for the Davis surname and variations.

Here is the link: http://lists.rootsweb.ancestry.com/index/other/DNA/DAVIS-DNA.html

SUBGROUPS: The Results Chart has the capability to offer member subgrouping bycolor. If you are interested in this, please send the Group Administrator ane-mail. Include in your e-mail which kit numbers you would like to be part ofyour subgroup.

Subgroup K87577 - The William Davis DNA Project The William Davis DNAProject is a non-profit, volunteer-run group created to connect livingdescendants of William Davis using DNA testing and to research their Davis
ancestors. Members of the WDDP knowthey are all descendants of their immigrant ancestor, William Davis, born 1663 Wales, because they all have closelymatching DNA, haplotype I2a, proven by 67-marker Y-DNA tests. The WDDP missionis to use DNA testing to prove as many major lines as possible of the WilliamDavis family tree, using the Davis paper family tree as a guide andcomparing DNA patterns from living descendants as proof. Because William Davisand several of his sons were ministers in the Seventh Day Baptist Church, muchof his family tree has been researched in detail, published both in books andonline, resulting in a strong paper history for comparison. As descendants ofthe same ancestor, members of the WDDP collaborate in research to clarify theirgenealogical histories. They share their findings with each other and inspireeach other to do better research. WDDP's website, WilliamDavisDNA.org[http://williamdavisdnaproject.wordpress.com], posts news about currentresearch and hosts their public online family tree, William Davis DNA ProjectFamily Tree.

Saxons, Vikings, and Celts: The Genetic Roots of Britain and Ireland (2007) byBryan Sykes
DNA USA (2012) Bryan Sykes
FOR ADOPTEES - Finding Family: My Search forRoots and the Secrets in My DNA (2012) by Richard Hill
Deep Ancestry: Inside The Genographic Project (2007) by Spencer Wells
The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey (2004) by Spencer Wells
Trace Your Roots with DNA (2004) by Megan Smolenyak and Ann Turner
Adam's Curse (2004) by Bryan Sykes
The Seven Daughters of Eve (2001) by Bryan Sykes
Genealogy and Genetics: A theme issue of the National Genealogical SocietyQuarterly - Volume 93, No. 4, December 2005.



The Institute for Genetic Genealogy is proud to makeavailable for purchase videos of 27 presentations that were given at the 2014International Genetic Genealogy Conference. Access to the all 27 of the videoscan be be purchased for $50 or you may purchase access to them individually for$4 each. Click on http://www.isogg.org/to purchase access to all 27 presentations at the conference that werevideotaped. All butthree of the presentations given at the conference were videotaped. The threepresentations that were not videotaped were those given by Spencer Wells, AngieBush, and Jim Bartlett. However, much of the material that Jim covered in hispresentation was also included in his portion of the Family Tree DNA workshop,which was videotaped. The overall level of complexity of each of thepresentations is indicated at the end of the titles below. The quality of thevideos varies. Some of the videos were shot with professional videotapingequipment and some were shot with lower quality videotaping equipment. Below isa list of the presentations that were shot with high quality videotapingequipment:

Ancestry.com Workshop by Anna Swayne B.S. – Getting the Mostfrom AncestryDNA – (Beginner)
23andMe Workshop by Joanna Mountain Ph.D. and Christine Moschella – ExploringAll of 23andMe’s Genealogy Features – (Intermediate)
Family Tree DNA Workshop – Exploring All Family Tree DNA Products by MauriceGleeson (Y chromosome overview), Jim Bartlett (Family Finder/autosomal DNA),CeCe Moore (mitochondrial DNA overview), and Janine Cloud (other features) –(Intermediate)
Blaine Bettinger Ph.D., J.D. – Using Free Third-Party Tools to Analyze YourAutosomal DNA – (Intermediate)
Rebekah Canada B.S. – Wanderlust – The Story of the Origins and Travels ofmtDNA Haplogroup H through History and Scientific Literature – (Intermediate)
Julie Granka Ph.D. – AncestryDNA matching: large-scale findings and technologybreakthroughs – (Intermediate)
William E. Howard III, Ph.D. – Using Correlation Techniques on Y-ChromosomeHaplotypes to Determine TMRCAs, Date STR Marker Strings, Surname Groups,Haplogroups and SNPs – (Advanced)
Tim Janzen M.D. – Using Chromosome Mapping to Help Trace Your Family Tree –(Advanced)
Razib Kahn B.S. – Tearing the Seamless Fabric, Ancestry as a Jigsaw Puzzle – (Intermediate)
Thomas Krahn Dipl.-Ing. – I’ve Received My Y Chromosome Sequencing Results –What Now? – (Advanced)
CeCe Moore – The Four Types of DNA Used in Genetic Genealogy –(Beginner/Intermediate)
Joanna Mountain Ph.D. – 23andMe Features – (Intermediate)
Ugo Perego Ph.D. – Native American Ancestry through DNA Analysis –(Intermediate)
Judy Russell J.D. – After the Courthouse Burns: Lighting Research Fires withDNA – (Intermediate)
Larry Vick M.S. – Using Y-DNA to Reconstruct a Patrilineal Tree – (Beginner)

Below is a list of the presentations that were shot withlower quality videotaping equipment:

Terry Barton M.B.A. – Surname Project Administration –(Intermediate)
Shannon Christmas M.A. – Identity by Descent: Using DNA to Extend theAfrican-American Pedigree – (Intermediate)
Karin Corbeil B.S., Diane Harman Hoog M.B.A., and Rob Warthen M.S. – Not Justfor Adoptees – Methods and Tools for Working with Autosomal DNA from the Teamat DNAGedcom.com – (Intermediate)
Katherine Hope Borges – International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) –(Beginner)
William Hurst B.S. – Mitochondrial DNA Focusing on Haplogroup K –(Intermediate)
Kathy Johnston M.D. – From X Segments to Success Stories: The Use of the XChromosome in Genetic Genealogy – (Advanced)
Maurice Gleeson M.D. – An Irish Approach to Autosomal DNA Matches –(Intermediate)
Greg Magoon Ph.D. – ‘Next-gen’ Y chromosome Sequencing – (Advanced)
Doug McDonald Ph.D. – Understanding Autosomal Biogeographical Ancestry Results– (Advanced)
David Pike Ph.D. – The Use of Phasing in Genetic Genealogy – (Advanced)
Bonnie Schrack B.A. – Y chromosome Haplogroups A and B – (Intermediate)
Debbie Parker Wayne CG – Mitochondrial DNA: Tools and Techniques for Genealogy– (Beginner)





Finding Your Roots (2012) DVD The basic drive todiscover who we are and where we come from is at the core of this 10-part PBSseries Finding Your Roots with Henry Louis Gates, Jr., the 12th series fromProfessor Gates. Continuing on the quest begun in his previous projects, AfricanAmerican Lives, African American Lives 2 and Faces of America, Gatesfinds new ways to, as he says, "get into the DNA of Americanculture." He takes viewers along for the journey with one celebrity pairbound together by an intimate, sometimes hidden link. And he treks throughlayers of ancestral history to uncover the secrets and surprises of theirfamily trees.

Gates' guest pairings include...
- Award-winning husband-and-wife actors Kevin Bacon and Kyra Sedgwick, who arerevealed to be distant cousins;
- New Orleans jazz masters and close friends Harry Connick, Jr. and BranfordMarsalis, whose European immigrant ancestors made very different choices in theslave-era South;
- Spiritual leaders Angela Buchdahl, Yasir Qadhi and Rick Warren, whoseancestors' paths to America were shaped by religious convictions; and
- Education superstar Geoffrey Canada and media legend Barbara Walters, whoboth rediscover family histories long obscured by forgotten name changes.

Gates shares the findings with each guest and travels with them as they processwhat they've learned. He accompanies musician John Legend to a rock concert,goes backstage on Broadway with Samuel L. Jackson, joins
New Jersey Mayor Cory Booker as he reveals theroot-seeking results to his parents, and trails Dr. Sanjay Gupta and GeoffreyCanada to memorable family reunions. The series searches through severalbranches of the American past, leaving audiences all the more curious abouttheir own background and eager to unearth their own family roots.



Faces of America (2010) DVD What made America? What makes us? These two questionsare at the heart of the new PBS series Faces of America withHenry Louis Gates, Jr. Building on the success of his series AfricanAmerican Lives (called by the New York Times "the most exciting andstirring documentary on any subject to appear on television in a longtime") and African American Lives 2, Harvard scholar Henry LouisGates, Jr. again turns to the latest tools of genealogy and genetics to explorethe family histories of 12 renowned Americans.

Looking beyond the black experience to the wider immigrant experience,Professor Gates unravels the American tapestry, following the threads of hisguests' lives back to their earliest origins around the globe. Along the way,the many stories he uncovers -- of displacement and homecoming, of materialsuccess and dispossession, of assimilation and discrimination -- illuminate theAmerican experience. Professor Gates' guests include professor and poetElizabeth Alexander, who composed and read the poem at President Barack Obama'sinauguration, chef Mario Batali, comedian Stephen Colbert, novelist LouiseErdrich, journalist Malcolm Gladwell, actress Eva Longoria, musician Yo-Yo Ma,director Mike Nichols, Her Majesty Queen Noor, television host/heart surgeonDr. Mehmet Oz, actress Meryl Streep, and figure skater Kristi Yamaguchi.


The HumanFamily Tree (2009) DVD Join geneticist SpencerWells and a team of technicians from National Geographic's Genographic Projectas they trace the human journey through time and space, from our origins in theheart of Africa to the ends of the world. Cutting edge science, coupled with acast of New Yorkers—each with their own unique genetic history—will help painta picture of these amazing journeys.

African American Lives 2 (2008) DVD In February 2006 the PBS seriesAfrican American Lives narrated by acclaimed Harvard professor Henry LouisGates showed the results of extensive genealogical searches of prominentAfrican Americans including composer and producer Quincy Jones talk show hostOprah Winfrey and comedian Chris Tucker. Reaction to the show spurred thousandsof black Americans to begin or renew the search especially with the help of DNAtesting to find their origins. Gates and PBS have teamed up for a sequel thatwill air in February 2008 but this version will have a twist: A member of thegeneral public will be selected to have his or her genealogical roots traced.The winner s story will be told along with those of several celebritiesincluding Chris Rock Morgan Freeman Tom Joyner Maya Angelou Don Cheadle andothers.

AfricanAmerican Lives (2006) DVD A compelling combination ofstorytelling and science AFRICAN-AMERICAN LIVES is an unprecedented four-hourseries on PBS that takes Alex Haley's Roots saga to a whole new level. Theseries will profile some of the most accomplished African-Americans of our timeusing genealogy and DNA to trace their roots down through American history andback to
. Hosted by Henry Louis Gates Jr. W.E.B. Du Bois professor of theHumanities and chair of African and African-American Studies at HarvardUniversityDr. Gates will provide access to the day-to-day lives of severalprominent African-Americans drawing on photographs film clips music and earlypersonal records while a team of researchers genealogists and forensic DNAanalysts will conduct investigations into their family histories. Byspotlighting African-American role models the series hopes to inspire millionsto consider their own heritage and underscore for all Americans the importanceof knowing their past in order to unlock the future.

Journey of Man
(2003) DVD How did the human race populate the world? Agroup of geneticists have worked on the question for a decade, arriving at astartling conclusion: the "global family tree" can be traced to oneAfrican man who lived 60,000 years ago. Dr. Spencer Wells hosts this innovativeseries, featuring commentary by expert scientists, historians, archaeologists,and anthropologists. 

Project News:


Wellcome Trust


First fine-scalegenetic map of the British Isles


Aninternational team, led by researchers from the University of Oxford, UCL (University College London)and the Murdoch Childrens Research Institute in Australia, used DNA samples collected frommore than 2,000 people to create the first fine-scale genetic map of anycountry in the world.


Theirfindings, published in Nature,show that prior to the mass migrations of the 20th century there was a strikingpattern of rich but subtle genetic variation across the UK, with distinct groups ofgenetically similar individuals clustered together geographically.

Bycomparing this information with DNA samples from over 6,000 Europeans, the teamwas also able to identify clear traces of the population movements into the UK over the past 10,000 years. Theirwork confirmed, and in many cases shed further light on, known historicalmigration patterns.


Key findings

*                     There was not a single "Celtic" genetic group. In factthe Celtic parts of the (, , and ) are among themost different from each other genetically. For example, the Cornish are muchmore similar genetically to other English groups than they are to the Welsh orthe Scots.


*                     There are separate genetic groups in and , with a divisionalmost exactly along the modern county boundary.


*                     The majority of eastern, central and southern is made up of asingle, relatively homogeneous, genetic group with a significant DNAcontribution from Anglo-Saxon migrations (10-40% of total ancestry). Thissettles a historical controversy in showing that the Anglo-Saxons intermarriedwith, rather than replaced, the existing populations.


*                     The population in Orkney emerged as the most geneticallydistinct, with 25% of DNA coming from Norwegian ancestors. This shows clearlythat the Norse Viking invasion (9th century) did not simply replace theindigenous Orkney population.


*                     The Welsh appear more similar to the earliest settlers of after the lastice age than do other people in the .


*                     There is no obvious genetic signature of the Danish Vikings, whocontrolled large parts of ("TheDanelaw") from the 9th century.


*                     There is genetic evidence of the effect of the Landsker line --the boundary between English-speaking people in south-west Pembrokeshire(sometimes known as "Little England beyond ") and theWelsh speakers in the rest of , which persistedfor almost a millennium.


*                     The analyses suggest there was a substantial migration acrossthe channel after the original post-ice-age settlers, but before Roman times.DNA from these migrants spread across , , and , but had littleimpact in .


*                     Many of the genetic clusters show similar locations to thetribal groupings and kingdoms around end of the 6th century, after thesettlement of the Anglo-Saxons, suggesting these tribes and kingdoms may havemaintained a regional identity for many centuries.


On October 11th& 12th, 2014, I attended the Family Tree DNA 10th InternationalConference on Genetic Genealogy in . The conference islimited to group administrators, who pay the conference fee and pay their ownway to get there. This was my 7th trip to the conference.


Keynote speaker wasDr. Spencer Wells, who gave the presentation "Consumer Genomics The 30,000foot View ". 


Dr. Michael Hammarspoke of the Ancient North Eurasian peoples, whose genetic trace has been wasfound among the hunter-gatherers and farmer haplogroups of .

Senior Director of Product Michael Gugel shared at theconference, for the first time ever, people that have taken an AncestryDNA™ or23andMe© (V3) test can transfer into the FTDNA databases for free by visiting https://www.familytreedna.com/AutosomalTransferand following the instructions to upload their raw data file. Within anhour or two, we provide a preview of what’s waiting if they transfer by showingthe top 20 matches along with an estimate of the total number of matches in theFTDNA database. Full functionality can be unlocked by either paying $39 orrecruiting four other people to upload, thus unlocking the rest of the matches.

FTDNA hasadded a new feature FAMILY TREE, similar to what Ancestry.com offers.  Youcan now build your family tree with the option provided to share with yourmatches.  You can still use 3rd party software to import a GEDCOM if youprefer.

SeeRECOMMENDED RESOURCES above for videotaped presentations from the 2014 International GeneticGenealogy Conference

On Ancestry.com will be discontinuing thefollowing products: MyFamily, MyCanvas, Genealogy.com, Mundia and the Y-DNAand mtDNA tests.


On November 9th& 10th, 2013, I attended the Family Tree DNA 9th InternationalConference on Genetic Genealogy in . The conference islimited to group administrators, who pay the conference fee and pay their ownway to get there. This was my 6th trip to the conference.

The big news was the BIG Y test.
It testsnearly 25,000 known SNPs, placing you deep on the haplotree. There is 10Million base-pair coverage - more than any other Y-DNA test on the market.

Youmay find SNPs that may be completely unique to you. It will explore your deeppaternal ancestry, help the community uncover new, undiscovered SNPs, and allowyou to use your newly discovered SNPs to help grow the haplotree

The father of all men is 340,000 years old

Colin Barras in NewScientist

Albert Perry carried a secret in his DNA: a Ychromosome so distinctive that it reveals new information about the origin ofour species. It shows that the last common male ancestor down the paternal lineof our species is over twice as old as we thought.

One possible explanation is that hundreds ofthousands of years ago, modern and archaic humans in central Africa interbred,adding to known examples of interbreeding – with Neanderthals in the MiddleEast, and with the enigmatic Denisovans somewhere in southeast Asia.

Perry, recently deceased, was anAfrican-American who lived in South Carolina. A few years ago, one of hisfemale relatives submitted a sample of his DNA to a company called Family TreeDNA for genealogical analysis.

Geneticists can use such samples to work outhow we are related to one another. Hundreds of thousands of people have now hadtheir DNA tested. The data from these tests had shown that all men gained theirY chromosome from a common male ancestor. This genetic "Adam" livedbetween 60,000 and 140,000 years ago.

All men except Perry, that is. When FamilyTree DNA's technicians tried to place Perry on the Y-chromosome family tree,they just couldn't. His Y chromosome was like no other so far analysed.

Deeper roots

Michael Hammer,  a geneticist at theUniversity of Arizona in Tucson, heard about Perry's unusual Y chromosome anddid some further testing. His team's research revealed something extraordinary:Perry did not descend from the genetic Adam. In fact, his Y chromosome was sodistinct that his male lineage probably separated from all others about 338,000years ago.

"The Y-chromosome tree is much olderthan we thought," says Chris Tyler-Smith at the Wellcome Trust SangerInstitute in Hinxton, UK, who was not involved in the study. He says furtherwork will be needed to confirm exactly how much older.

"It's a cool discovery," says JonWilkins of the Ronin Institute in Montclair, New Jersey. "We geneticistshave been looking at Y chromosomes about as long as we've been looking atanything. Changing where the root of the Y-chromosome tree is at this point isextremely surprising."

Digging deeper, Hammer's team examined anAfrican database of nearly 6000 Y chromosomes and found similarities betweenPerry's and those in samples taken from 11 men, all living in one village in Cameroon.This may indicate where in Africa Perry's ancestors hailed from.

Older than humanity

The first anatomically modern human fossilsdate back only 195,000 years, so Perry's Y chromosome lineage split from therest of humanity long before our species appeared.

What are the implications? One possibility isthat Perry's Y chromosome may have been inherited from an archaic humanpopulation that has since gone extinct. If that's the case, then some timewithin the last 195,000 years, anatomically modern humans interbred with anancient African human.

There is some supporting evidence for thisscenario. In 2011, researchers examined human fossils from a Nigerian sitecalled Iwo Eleru. The fossils showed a strange mix of ancient and modernfeatures, which also suggested interbreeding between modern and archaic humans."The Cameroon village with an unusual genetic signature is right on theborder with Nigeria, and Iwo Eleru is not too far away," says Hammer.

Chris Stringer at the Natural History Museum,London, was involved in the Iwo Eleru analysis, and says the new Y chromosomeresult highlights the need for more genetic data from modern-day sub-SaharanAfricans. "The oldest known fossil humans in both West Africa at Iwo Eleruand Central Africa at Ishango [in Democratic Republic of the Congo] showunexpectedly archaic features, so it certainly looks like we have a morecomplex scenario for the evolution of modern humans in Africa."

November 12, 2012

On November 10th & 11th, 2012, I attended theFamily Tree DNA8th International Conference on Genetic Genealogy in .The conference is limited to group administrators, who pay the conference feeand pay their own way to get there. This was my 5th trip to theconference. 

Dr. Spencer Wells, via Skype from Florence, Italy, announced the National Geographic’s Geno 2.0 test. Thisnew GenoChip test examines 150,000 markers, approximately 12,000 Y-DNA SNPs,3,200 mtDNA SNPs, and 130,000 autosomal and X-chromosome SNPs from across theentire human genome to provide unprecedented ancestry-relevant information,including ancient hominid ancestry. SNPs identified with Neanderthals,Denisovans, Chimps, Aboriginals, Paleo-Eskimos are included. The cost is $199.Currently the test is only available through National Geographic, but FTDNAhopes to receive approval to offer and integrate the test into its productofferings sometime next year.


Dr. Doron Behar spoke of a “Copernican” effort to reassessthe human mitochondrial tree from its root. Currently, we used the rCRS, arandomly developed reference sequence. This presents a host of long termproblems. What is proposed is switching to a Reconstructed Sapiens ReferenceSequence (RSRS) based on a human mtDNA phylogeny root. To facilitate datatransition, the website www.mtdnacommunity.orgwas established and is committed to the support of the “Copernican”reassessment of the human mtDNA phylogeny and to the establishment ofcomputational tools meant to facilitate phylogenetic analysis and comparison ofcomplete mtDNA sequences. The website allows an easy transition from an rCRS toan RSRS based nomenclature, automatically labels haplogroups, performs aphylogeny based quality check, identifies private substitutions, and comparesnew sequences with previously stored mitogenomes to suggest the labeling ofadditional haplogroups.


Dr. Michael Hammer, with Thomas Krahn and Bonnie Schrack,spoke of very recently discovered individual(s) who have a Y-DNA lineage thatpredates any currently known lineage, moving the TMRCA for Y-DNA Adam from 60 –120 kya to 140 – 237 kya. This is older than the oldest known fossil of modernhumans, introducing the possibility of archaic DNA introgression.


Because there have been so many Y-DNA markers found in thepast year, the current Y-DNA haplogroup nomenclature will be going away. Forexample, instead of R1B1A2, only your endpoint marker will be used – M269.


Elliot Greenspan, the FTDNA IT director, spoke of systemchanges for next year.  They include: displaying micro alleles (partials)and palindromes, a revamped MyFTDNA webpage, Family Tree viewer which will showyour whole GEDCOM, not just your direct line, upgraded population finderdatabases, changes to the FamilyFinder chromosome browser and filteringoptions, chromosome painting, and phasing.  


Judy Russell, JD, the Legal Genealogist, spoke ofregulatory concerns including informed consent, privacy rights, access to data,and truth in advertising.


Dr. Tyrone Powers showed how to use the Irish, Scottish,Welsh and English ‘Origenes’ websites to use the surnames of the people withwhom one shares a common male ancestor as revealed by the Y-DNA test topinpoint where precisely one’s direct male ancestor lived when he first pickedhis surname many years ago.  Surnames can still be found concentrated inthe areas where they first arose, so if you review where the surnames areplotted, you can determine a genetic homeland.


 On November 5th& 6th, 2011, I attended the Family Tree DNA 7th InternationalConference on Genetic Genealogy in . The conference islimited to group administrators, who pay the conference fee and pay their ownway to get there. This was my 4th trip to the conference.

I found presentationsby Michael Hammer and David Pike to be the most interesting to me.


Michael Hammer, Phd, spoke about how in just the past year the finding of Neanderthal DNA(1-4%) in non-Aftrican humans, and archaic Denisovan DNA in central Asians (upto 8% in Melanesians) is causing anthropogists to revise the evolutionary chartfrom a strict replacement theory to one of inter-breeding, evolutionary changesand eventually replacement.


For those of you whohave taken the FamilyFinder test, David Pike spoke about tools he has developedfor phasing autosomal DNA.  Phasing is the process of determining whichhalf of each base pair tested came from which parent. FTDNA is evaluatingautosomal DNA analysis tools to be provided in the future. Look for David Pike’sTools at  www.isogg.org/wiki/Autosomal_DNA_tools


Available utilities for processing unzipped autosomal filesfrom Family Tree DNA and/or 23andMe:

For a deep exampleof autosomal DNA phasing, see Phasing theChromosomes of a Family Group When One Parent is Missing by Whit Athey,  Journal of GeneticGenealogy, Vol 6 Num 1, Fall 2010.


Other presentations:


FTDNA announcedArchives.com as a strategic partner. Archives.com offers the major databasesavailable at Ancestry at a much reduced price.
Bruce Walsh, PhD, gave a presentation that reviewed genetic testing basics. Heemphasized that with FamilyFinder autosomal testing, we should be concentratingon matches where the largest matching block is at least 10 cM. Matches belowthat size may be false positives identical by state (IBS) rather than Identicalby descent (IBD). Here again are the average block sizes for each generation:
Gen 1         44.06 cM
Gen 2         19.15 cM
Gen 3         12.30 cM
Gen 4          9.07 cM
Gen 5          7.19 cM
Gen 6          5.95 cM
Gen 7          5.08 cM


Dr. Spencer Wells,National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence and Genographic Project Director saidthat phase 1 of the project is winding down. Expect several important papers tobe released in the coming months. He also said that they still have not hadmuch success getting DNA samples from Native American tribes in the .


Thomas Krahn, Phdspoke about additional SNPs they have found on the Y chromosome.


Stephen Morse, Phdwalked us through his One-Step Webpages at WWW.STEVEMORSE.ORG On his website he has builtpowerful searches immigration and census records plus much much more.

ElliottGreenspan, director of Information Technology at FTDNA, announced there will bea new release of your MyFTDNA webpages made available in the near future. Itwill have new section landing pages, profile pages, advance matching (powersearch), and an interactive tour. FTDNA is processing 2.33 petabytes of data. There are 1,125,899,906,842,624bytes in 1 petabyte.

Peter Hrechdakian spoke about the Armenian DNA project,and the surprizing haplogroup diversity of Armenians. During the Armeniangenocide, an estimated 1.5 million of 2 million Armenians were killed.

Per Biggins, administrator of the Colla DNA project spokeof the many families related to the three powerful Colla brothers who lived in4th century Ireland.

Jessica Roberts, JD, spoke about the attempts to use ofgenetic testing to prove relation in immigration cases.

Richard Hill spoke of his personal story as an adoptee inusing genetic testing to find his birth parents. He has a website, www.dna-testing-adviser.com which describes the basics ofDNA testing with additional advice for adoptees. 

Anatomically modern humans interbred with more archaichominin forms even before they migrated out of Africa, a UA-led teamof researchers has found.

University of Arizona

It is now widely acceptedthat anatomically modern humans of the species Homo sapiensoriginated in and eventually spread throughout the world. Ancient DNArecovered from fossil Neanderthal bones suggests they interbred with morearchaic hominin forms once they had left their evolutionary cradle for thecooler climates of , but whether they exchanged genetic material with other, nowextinct archaic hominin varieties in remained unclear.

In a paperpublished in thee Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, or PNAS, ateam led by Michael Hammer, an associate professor and research scientist withthe UA's Arizona Research Labs, provides evidence that anatomically modernhumans were not so unique that they remained separate.

"We foundevidence for hybridization between modern humans and archaic forms in . It looks likeour lineage has always exchanged genes with their more morphologically divergedneighbors," said Hammer, who also holds appointments in the UA'sdepartment of ecology and evolutionary biology, the school of anthropology, theBIO5 Institute and the .

The team reportsthat contemporary African populations contain a small proportion of geneticmaterial brought in by an archaic population that split from the ancestors ofanatomically modern humans about 700,000 years ago.

Hammer added thatrecent advances in molecular biology have made it possible to extract DNA fromfossils tens of thousands of years old and compare it to that of moderncounterparts.

However, "Wedon't have fossil DNA from to compare with ours," he said. "Neanderthals livedin colder climates, but the climate in more tropical areas make it very toughfor DNA to survive that long, so recovering usable samples from fossilspecimens is extremely difficult if not impossible."

"Our work isdifferent from the research that led to the breakthroughs in Neanderthalgenetics," he explained. "We couldn't look directly for ancient DNAthat is 40,000 years old and make a direct comparison."

To get past thishindrance, Hammer's team followed a computational and statistical approach.

"Instead, welooked at DNA from modern humans belonging to African populations and searchedfor unusual regions in the genome."

Because nobodyknows the DNA sequences of those now extinct archaic forms, Hammer's team firsthad to figure out what features of modern DNA might represent fragments thatwere brought in from archaic forms.

"What we doknow is that the sequences of those forms, even the Neanderthals, are not thatdifferent from modern humans," he said. "They have certaincharacteristics that make them different from modern DNA."

The researchersused simulations to predict what ancient DNA sequences would look like had theysurvived within the DNA of our own cells.

"You couldsay we simulated interbreeding and exchange of genetic material insilico," Hammer said. "We can simulate a model of hybridizationbetween anatomically modern humans and some archaic form. In that sense, wesimulate history so that we can see what we would expect the pattern to looklike if it did occur."

According toHammer, the first signs of anatomically modern features appeared about 200,000years ago. Non-modern varieties of Homo are thought to have emerged about300,000 years earlier and have survived until as recently as 30,000 years agoor even later.

First, the teamsequenced vast regions of human genomes from samples taken from six differentpopulations living in today and tried to match up their sequences with what theyexpected those sequences to look like in archaic forms. The researchers focusedon non-coding regions of the genome, stretches of DNA that do not containgenes, which serve as the blueprints for proteins.

"Then weasked ourselves what does the general pattern of variation look like in the DNAthat we sequenced in those African populations, and we started to look atregions that looked unusual," Hammer said. "We discovered threedifferent genetic regions fit the criteria for being archaic DNA still presentin the genomes of sub-Saharan Africans. Interestingly, this signature wasstrongest in populations from central ."

The scientistsapplied several criteria to tag a DNA sequence as archaic. For example, if aDNA sequence differed radically from the ones found in a modern population, itwas likely to be ancient in origin. Another telltale sign is how far it extendsalong a chromosome. If an unusual piece is found to stretch a long portion of achromosome, it is an indication of being brought into the population relativelyrecently.

"We aretalking about something that happened between 20,000 and 60,000 years ago – notthat long ago in the scheme of things," Hammer said. "Ifinterbreeding occurs, it's going to bring in a whole chromosome, and over time,recombination events will chop the chromosome down to smaller pieces. And thosepieces will now be found as short, unusual fragments. By looking at how longthey are we can get an estimate of how far back the interbreeding eventhappened."

Hammer said thateven though the archaic DNA sequences account for only two or three percent ofwhat is found in modern humans, that doesn't mean the interbreeding wasn't moreextensive.

"It could bethat this represents what's left of a more extensive archaic genetic contenttoday. Many of the sequences we looked for would be expected to be lost overtime. Unless they provide a distinct evolutionary advantage, there is nothingkeeping them in the population and they drift out."

In a next step,Hammer's team wants to look for ancient DNA regions that conferred someselective advantage to the anatomically modern humans once they acquired them.

"We thinkthere were probably thousands of interbreeding events," Hammer said."It happened relatively extensively and regularly."

"Anatomicallymodern humans were not so unique that they remained separate," he added."They have always exchanged genes with their more morphologically divergedneighbors. This is quite common in nature, and it turns out we're not sounusual after all."

The paper,Genetic Evidence for Archaic Admixture in Africa, was co-authored by AugustWoerner from the UA's ARL Division of Biotechnology, Fernando Mendez from theUA's department of ecology and evolutionary biology, Joseph Watkins from theUA's Mathematics Department and Jeffrey Wall from the Institute for HumanGenetics at the University of California San Francisco.

As of , DNA Heritage has ceased its operations. DNA Heritage istransferring their existing customers' results to Family Tree DNA. 

Y-DNA Conversioncustomers may choose a basic Y-DNA Conversion of DNA Heritage results thatwill allow them to view their results in a new account and join group projects.This is the Y-DNA Conversion. The Y-DNAConversion is FREE. Database matching is at the Y-DNA25 level andhaplogroup prediction does not include SNP Assurance.

After customerscomplete the Y-DNA Conversion, they may orderupgrades at a discounted price.

We are excited to announce thelaunch of our new Y-DNA111 test!

This testincludes a panel of 111 Y chromosome Short Tandem Repeat (STR) markers.* With44 additional markers, Y-DNA111 is the highest resolution Y-DNA test offered byany company in the world.

The Y-DNA111 testis recommended for customers who already have close matches at the 67 markerlevel and are looking to tighten the calculation for the time to Most RecentCommon Ancestor (tMRCA).** Due to the specialized nature of this test and inorder to evaluate the potential benefit of this type of upgrade, we ask thatcustomers with Y-DNA12, 25, or 37 results upgrade to 67 markers first beforeconsidering the 111 marker test.

With that inmind, this new test is now available as an upgrade for customers with existingY-DNA67 results and also as a standalone test for individuals looking to provea close relationship on the direct paternal line:

Y Refine 67 to111 (upgrade)       $129

Y DNA111                               $339

FTDNA will be retesting everyone who has purchased the Family Finder productwith the Illiumina OmniExpress chip. This new platform will allow FTDNA betteropportunities for upgrades in the future.

 On October 30 & 31, 2010, I attended the Family Tree DNA 6thInternational Conference on Genetic Genealogy in
. Theconference is limited to group administrators, who paid their own way to getthere. The conference also marked the 10th anniversary of Family Tree DNA as acompany.

While topic presenters Michael Hammer, Doron Behar, and Thomas Krahn did speakto traditional Y-DNA and mtDNA topics (which I will not address here), the realexcitement of the conference was the new autosomal DNA testing product FamilyFinder, and the future promise of full genome testing.

Bruce Walsh, PhD, gave a presentation on the science behind autosomal testing.The autosomal signal is rapidly lost for each succeeding generation. If twoindividuals share a common ancestor k generations back, then the chance theyshare the same allele from that ancestor is (1/2)2k-1
For k = 1, this is 50%
For k = 2, this is 12.5%
For k = 3, this is 3.1%
For k = 4, this is 0.78%
For k = 5, this is 0.19%
For k = 6, this is 0.05%
For k = 7, this is 0.01%
Therefore, autosomal testing will only confidently capture relationships up tothe 3rd generation. Relationships in the 4th – 20th generation may also becaptured, but may be beyond the period from which the paper trail may be foundto explain the relationship, and no prediction can be made as to where in therange the relationship occurred.
The cutoff for the average size of a block of shared DNA for 3 generations is10 cM. Here are the average block sizes for each generation:
Gen 1         44.06 cM
Gen 2         19.15 cM
Gen 3         12.30 cM
Gen 4          9.07 cM
Gen 5          7.19 cM
Gen 6          5.95 cM
Gen 7          5.08 cM
The current Affymetrix chip FTDNA uses for autosomal testing tests for 500,000SNPs. Chips with the ability to testing 2 million SNPs may be available in 2 –3 years.
Bennett Greenspan, founder of FTDNA, shared his own results from FamilyFinder.Full genome testing is available now for about $50,000 from other vendors.

The 1000 Genomes Project is the first project to sequence the genomes of alarge number of people, to provide a comprehensive resource on human geneticvariation. Data from the 1000 Genomes Project will be made available quickly tothe worldwide scientific community through freely accessible public databases.

The Archon X Prize for Genomics, announced in 2006, is a $10 million prize isto be awarded to the first team that can build a device and use it to sequence100 human genomes within 10 days or less, with an accuracy of no more than oneerror in every 100,000 bases sequenced, with sequences accurately covering atleast 98% of the genome, and at a recurring cost of no more than $10,000 (US)per genome.

Charmaine Royal, PhD, spoke about the increasing public interest indirect-to-consumer (DTC) genetic ancestry testing which has been accompanied bygrowing concern about issues ranging from the personal and societalimplications of the testing to the scientific validity of ancestry inference.She was lead author of the following paper: "Genetic Ancestry TestingChallenges Identified by American Society of Human Genetics Task Force.",American Society of Human Genetics,
Matt Kaplan & Taylor Edwards presented the following findings from thisreport: Because the science of ancestry determination has limitations, greaterefforts are needed on the part of both industry and academia to make thelimitations of ancestry estimation clearer to consumers, the scientificcommunity, and the public at large. In turn, the public has the responsibilityto avail themselves of information regarding ancestry testing and strive tobetter understand the implications and limitations of these assessments.Additional research is required to further understand the extent to which theaccuracy of genetic ancestry estimation is influenced by the individualsrepresented in existing databases, geographical patterns of human diversity,marker selection and statistical methods. The complex consequences of ancestryestimation for people, families, and populations need to be assessed andguidelines should be developed to facilitate explanation and/or counselingabout ancestry estimation in research, DTC and health care settings. Scientistsinferring genetic ancestry should consult or collaborate with scholars who haveexpertise in the historical, sociopolitical and cultural contexts needed toinform the processes and outcomes of their research and commercial efforts.Mechanisms for greater accountability of the DTC ancestry testing industryshould be explored.

Katherine Borges, president of the International Society of Genetic Genealogists(ISOGG), spoke about the mission of ISOGG which is to advocate for and educateabout the use of genetics as a tool for genealogical research, and promote asupportive network for genetic genealogists. Membership is free. For moreinformation about this organization go to their website: http://www.isogg.org/

May 7, 2010

Neanderthals and Humans share DNA On page 710 of this week's issue of Science,an international team of researchers presents their first detailed analysis ofthe draft sequence of the Neandertal genome, which now includes more than 3billion nucleotides collected from the bones of three female Neandertals wholived in Croatia more than 38,000 years ago. By comparing this compositeNeandertal genome with the complete genomes of five living humans fromdifferent parts of the world, the researchers found that both Europeans andAsians share 1% to 4% of their nuclear DNA with Neandertals. But Africans donot. This suggests that early modern humans interbred with Neandertals aftermoderns left
, but before they spread into and . In a separatepaper (p. 723), the team describes and successfully tests a new method forfilling in gaps in the rough draft of the genome. Ann Gibbons Science : Vol. 328. no. 5979, pp. 680 - 684

April 20, 2010

FTDNA Announces Family Finder While the Y-DNA matches men with a specificpaternal line, and the mtDNA finds potential relatives only along the maternalline, Family Finder can look for close relationships along all ancestral lines.You may now match to male and female cousins from any of your family lineswithin about five generations. The science uses linked blocks of DNA across the22 autosomal chromosomes and matches them between two people. Ourbioinformatics team has worked extensively to develop the calculations todetermine the closeness of the relationship. The possibilities to find matchesabound: Aunts & Uncles, Parents and Grandparents Half siblings and 1stcousins 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cousins Possibly 5th cousins. Although that willrequire some digging! When you take the Family Finder test, your results arecompared against our Family Finder database. You will be able to: sort yourmatches by degree of relationship view their names and e-mail address forimmediate communication download your raw data Family Finder test is priced at$289, and can be ordered from the menu on the left side of the personal page.

Who Do You Think You Are?
begins at 8/7c on NBC. Share a heartwarming journey through familyhistory with Sarah Jessica Parker,Emmitt Smith, Lisa Kudrow, Matthew Broderick,Brooke Shields, Susan Sarandon and Spike Lee as they discover the stories oftheir ancestors. Who Do You Think You Are? will also help people everywherebetter understand how to discover their own family stories.

The new PBS series Faces of America with Henry Louis Gates, Jr.premieres nationally Wednesdays, February 10 -
from on PBS. What made ? What makes us? These two questions are at the heart of the newPBS series Faces of America with Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Building on the successof his series African American Lives (called by the New York Times"the most exciting and stirring documentary on any subject to appear ontelevision in a long time,") and African American Lives 2, Harvardscholar Henry Louis Gates, Jr. again turns to the latest tools of genealogy andgenetics to explore the family histories of 12 renowned Americans. The compellingfamily stories of 12 celebrities, including poet Elizabeth Alexander, chefMario Batali, comedian Stephen Colbert, writer Junot Diaz, writer LouiseErdrich, writer Malcolm Gladwell, actress Eva Longoria, cellist Yo-Yo Ma,director Mike Nichols, Dr. Mehmet Oz, former monarch of Jordan Queen Noor,actress Meryl Streep and Olympic gold medalist and figure skater KristiYamaguchi, will demonstrate the richness of family history.

August 23, 2009

Watch The Human Family Tree on National Geographic Channel Sunday,August 30th 9 pm et/pt On a single day on a single street, with the DNA of justa couple of hundred random people, National Geographic Channel sets out totrace the ancestral footsteps of all humanity. Narrated by Kevin Bacon, TheHuman Family Tree travels to one of the most diverse corners of the world --Queens, N.Y. -- to demonstrate how we all share common ancestors who embarkedon very different journeys. Regardless of race, nationality or religion, all ofus can trace our ancient origin back to the cradle of humanity,
. What did ourcollective journey look like, and where did it take your specific ancestors? Atwhat point in our past did we first cross paths with the supposed strangersliving in our neighborhood? Now, in The Human Family Tree, the people of thisquintessential American melting pot find out that their connections go muchdeeper than a common ZIP code.

On March 14 &15, 2009, I attended the Family Tree DNA 5th InternationalConference on Genetic Genealogy for Group Administrators in
. Theconference was limited to about 200 group administrators, who paid their ownway to get there. The conference had been rescheduled from September 2008because of hurricane Ike.
Bennett Greenspan and Max Blankfeld of FTDNA recently traveled to
to participate in the 2009 Who Do You Think You Are?conference. Who Do You Think You Are? is a British genealogy documentary seriesthat has aired on the BBC since 2004. In each episode, a celebrity goes on ajourney to trace his or her family tree. Bennett and Max announced they will beaggresively going after the U.K. DNA testing market. That would be great if wecan start getting some more matches from across the pond. Also, there may be anAmerican version of the show that will start airing at a date to be determinedon NBC. Check you local listings.
Dr. Spencer Wells, National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence and GenographicProject Director gave a quick review of the Genographic Project. He expectsthey will actually end DNA sampling of indigenous peoples in 2010, as theproject reaches its conclusion. Dr. Wells felt that climate change was the maindetermination for the ancient migration out of
. At times in thepast, the Saharan region of has had enough moisture to support humans and support themigration out of . Be on the lookout in August, 2009 for a major ‘tentpole’presentation special on the National Geographic channel by Dr. Wells.
Ricki Wells spoke on the impact of the Genetic Information NondiscriminationAct passed in May 2008. This doesn’t impact FTDNA per se, as Y chromosometesting does not have medical implications, but there are a number of productson the market such as 23andMe, Navigenics, and deCODEme that will tell you ifyou carry the markers for certain medical conditions.
Katherine Hope Borges, director of the ISOGG – International Society of GeneticGenealogy said that this should concern us, as legislators are under increasingpressure to regulate the direct-to-consumer genetic testing market which maylimit our freedom to obtain DNA for genealogy purposes in the future.
FTDNA will be changing the way it counts short tandem repeats (STRs) in threecases. Your current value for DYS441 will increase by +1, DYS442 will increaseby +5, and Y-GATA-H4 will increase by +1. The reason for this change is theapplication of standards by the National Institute of Standards and Technology(NIST) which differ from when the markers were first discovered and published.This will reduce some of the differences in existence between FTDNA and othertesting companies. No date has been set for when this will happen. If you’vecopied your test results elsewhere please note to make the change when ithappens.
Dr. Michael Hammer of the
presented the latest phylogenic tree of Y-chromosomehaplogroups. An ever larger number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)are being discovered and placed on the tree, allowing deeper subclade analysisof the haplogroups.

FTDNA lowered Group discount price for Y-DNA37 - 37 marker test from $189 to$149, and the Y-DNA67 - 67 marker test from $269 to $248.

2008 Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree released. FTDNA may have updated yourhaplogroup with current standard nomenclature.

() —A team of Genographic researchers and their collaboratorshave published the most extensive survey to date of African mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA). Over 600 complete mtDNA genomes from indigenous populations across thecontinent were analyzed by the scientists, led by Doron Behar, GenographicAssociate Researcher, based at , , and Saharon Rosset of and . Analyses of the extensive data presented in this study providesurprising insights into the early demographic history of human populationsbefore they moved out of , illustrating that these early human populations were small andisolated from each other for many tens of thousands of years. MtDNA, inheriteddown the maternal line, was used to discover the age of the famous'mitochondrial Eve' in 1987. This work has since been extended to showunequivocally that the most recent common female ancestor of everyone alivetoday was an African woman who lived in the past 200,000 years. Paleontologyprovides corroborating evidence that our species originated on this continentapproximately 200,000 years ago. The migrations after 60,000 years ago that ledmodern humans on their epic journeys to populate the world have been theprimary focus of anthropological genetic research, but relatively little isknown about the demographic history of our species over the previous 140,000years in . The current study returns the focus to and in doing sorefines our understanding of early modern Homo sapiens history. Doron Behar, , , said: "We see strong evidence of ancient populationsplits beginning as early as 150,000 years ago, probably giving rise toseparate populations localized to Eastern and . It was onlyaround 40,000 years ago that they became part of a single pan-African population,reunited after as much as 100,000 years apart." Recent paleoclimatologicaldata suggests that went through a series of massive droughts between135,000-90,000 years ago. It is possible that this climatological shiftcontributed to the population splits. What is surprising is the length of timethe populations were separate - as much as half of our entire history as aspecies. Saharon Rosset, and , said: "The analysis of such a massive dataset presentsstatistical and computational challenges as well as great opportunities fordiscovery of the events that shaped our history and genetic landscape. Forexample, we can see evidence of a population expansion period starting around70,000 years ago, perhaps leading to the out of dispersalshortly afterward." The timing of these events coincides with the onset ofthe Late Stone Age in , a change in material culture that many archaeologists believeheralds the beginning of fully modern human behavior, including abstractthought and complex spoken language. Previous studies have shown that whilehuman populations had been quite small prior to the Late Stone Age, perhapsnumbering fewer than 2,000 around 70,000 years ago, the expansion after thistime led to the occupation of many previously uninhabited areas, including theworld beyond Africa. Dr. Spencer Wells, National GeographicExplorer-in-Residence and Director of the Genographic Project, said: “This newstudy released today illustrates the extraordinary power of genetics to revealinsights into some of the key events in our species' history. Tiny bands ofearly humans, forced apart by harsh environmental conditions, coming back fromthe brink to reunite and populate the world. Truly an epic drama, written inour DNA.” Paleontologist Meave Leakey, Genographic Advisory Board member,National Geographic Explorer in Residence and Research Professor, Stony BrookUniversity, added: "Who would have thought that as recently as 70,000 yearsago, extremes of climate had reduced our population to such small numbers thatwe were on the very edge of extinction." To see the entire article go tohttp://www.nationalgeographic.com/genographic

A couple of important announcements: First, Pat Griffith is retiring fromactive stewardship of the Davis/Davies/David surname project.
Pat has been the Project Group Administrator since its inception 5 years ago.It will be hard to replace her experience, leadership and dedication. I hopeyou will join me in thanking Pat for all she has done. I will be taking herplace. Pat will stay on temporarily as co-administrator until I find a backupfor when I am on vacation or ill. If you are interested, please let me know.Secondly, FTDNA has given the project Group Administrators the capability tooffer member subgrouping by color. If you are interested in this, please sendme an e-mail. Include in your e-mail which kit numbers you would like to bepart of your subgroup
On October 20th and 21st, I attended FTDNA's 4th conference on GeneticGenealogy in
. Among the topics presented were:
Roberta Estes gave a presentation on the lost colony of
. One hundredfifteen settlers were left on in 1587 while the ship returned to for supplies. In 1590, when the ship returned, the settlementwas gone. Roberta's project is to solve the mystery of the missing colony. Shewill be looking for DNA traces of the Europeans among the Native Americans ofthe area. David Soria, a research fellow with the National Geographic Society'sGenographic Project, showed some slides from a recent trip to gather DNA fromindigenous people in .
John Butler, from the DNA measurements group of the National Institute of Standardsand Technology (NIST), said that standards exist for only a handful of the markersthat FTDNA offers. So when the government catches up on issuing standards, beaware that FTDNA may be making some adjustments to existing counts. Also takenote that competing testing labs may not be using the same standard, so pleasetake this into account when comparing results from tests outside FTDNA.

General Fund