Cossack DNA Project - Results

Y-DNA Results:

Ali - L2: Turkish Origin. This haplogroup is found primarily in India and Sri Lanka, and has also spread into several Middle Eastern populations (Turks, Saudis, and Pakistanis). The Seljuk Turks migrated from Central Asia into mainland Iran formerly known as Persia. They are regarded as the ancestors of the Western Turks, the present-day inhabitants of Turkey, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan.

Alkaravich - J1: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia, Ukraine, and Poland as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Cossacks have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Bielawa - I: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 30% of modern day Cossacks have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Boghossian - G2: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Sarmatians are the likely origin of Haplogroup G. They were a blend of Iranian nomadic horse tribes that were likely descended from the Scythians. The territory of the Sarmatians was an expansive stretch of land reaching from the Caspian Sea in the East to the Vistula River in the West, and as far south as the Danube. Essentially, Sarmatia was a collection of independent tribes, that encompassed parts of modern Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States, Central Asian nations and into central European countries such as Romania and Poland. 5% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Bokor - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 30% of modern day Cossacks have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Daragan - G2: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Sarmatians are the likely origin of Haplogroup G. They were a blend of Iranian nomadic horse tribes that were likely descended from the Scythians. The territory of the Sarmatians was an expansive stretch of land reaching from the Caspian Sea in the East to the Vistula River in the West, and as far south as the Danube. Essentially, Sarmatia was a collection of independent tribes, that encompassed parts of modern Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States, Central Asian nations and into central European countries such as Romania and Poland. 5% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Eisimontowicza - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Ejsmont - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Faldasz - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Galovic - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Grigoriev - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Grigoriev - R1b1: Western European Origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 7% of modern day Cossacks share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Grynkewich - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Hnato - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Hucul - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 30% of modern day Cossacks have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Ivanov - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Jaklinski - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Karmazyn - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Kaznacheyev - J1: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia, Ukraine, and Poland as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Cossacks have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Kochanji - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Korfanty - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Kosorotov - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Kozak - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Kozak - I2b: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 30% of modern day Cossacks have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Krivenkoff - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Kubasiak - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Kuszniaj - R1b1: Western European Origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 7% of modern day Cossacks share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Kuczawski - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Kuszniaj - R1b1: Western European Origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 7% of modern day Cossacks share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Lapotsky - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin. 

Laszczynski - E1b1b: Mediterranean Origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, the Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Greeks belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Russia. 7% of modern day Russians share this origin.

Lavryk - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Levinskov - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Malik - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Maltsev - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Matrenin - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Melnikov - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Moiseenko - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Mysochka - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Nazarov - R1b1: Western European Origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 7% of modern day Cossacks share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Newerdowski - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Nikolenko - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Nochevnoy - G2: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Sarmatians are the likely origin of Haplogroup G. They were a blend of Iranian nomadic horse tribes that were likely descended from the Scythians. The territory of the Sarmatians was an expansive stretch of land reaching from the Caspian Sea in the East to the Vistula River in the West, and as far south as the Danube. Essentially, Sarmatia was a collection of independent tribes, that encompassed parts of modern Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States, Central Asian nations and into central European countries such as Romania and Poland. 5% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.


Nochevnyy - G2: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Sarmatians are the likely origin of Haplogroup G. They were a blend of Iranian nomadic horse tribes that were likely descended from the Scythians. The territory of the Sarmatians was an expansive stretch of land reaching from the Caspian Sea in the East to the Vistula River in the West, and as far south as the Danube. Essentially, Sarmatia was a collection of independent tribes, that encompassed parts of modern Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States, Central Asian nations and into central European countries such as Romania and Poland. 5% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Ostrowski - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Ostrowski - J2: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia, Ukraine, and Poland as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Cossacks have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Pererva - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 30% of modern day Cossacks have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Petrovich - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 30% of modern day Cossacks have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2. 

Potapov - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Pranikoff - J: Semitic Origin. Mostly found in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa. Ashkenazi Jews, and 1/3 of Ossetians, Turks, and Armenians belong to this Haplogroup. These four groups of people were settlers of Russia, Ukraine, and Poland as early as the year 1000 AD. About 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Cossacks have J, J1, or J2 origin.

Prokopowicz - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Prokopowicz - N1c1: Northeastern European Origin. The subclade N1c1* likely arose in Southern Siberia during the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), whence it spread to Europe about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is notable that N1c1* has higher frequency in Eastern Europe than in Siberia. Traditionally, this has been seen as an indicator of an older presence and, thus, the place of origin of a haplogroup. Median-joining trees indicate that N1c1* would have first appeared in South Siberia. However, the possibility of back-migration from Europe cannot be ruled out. The presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages. 5% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Prudkyi - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 30% of modern day Cossacks have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2. 

Reda - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Saraciewsky - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Savelo - R1b1: Western European Origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 7% of modern day Cossacks share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Sawczyn - I: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 30% of modern day Cossacks have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2.

Senkevitch - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Senko - R1b1: Western European Origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 7% of modern day Cossacks share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Smirnyagin - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Sokolo - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Stivadoros - G2: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Sarmatians are the likely origin of Haplogroup G. They were a blend of Iranian nomadic horse tribes that were likely descended from the Scythians. The territory of the Sarmatians was an expansive stretch of land reaching from the Caspian Sea in the East to the Vistula River in the West, and as far south as the Danube. Essentially, Sarmatia was a collection of independent tribes, that encompassed parts of modern Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States, Central Asian nations and into central European countries such as Romania and Poland. 5% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Strelnikov - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Surikov - G2: Caucasus of Europe. This is a fairly rare haplogroup found mostly in men from the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. The highest concentration of Haplogroup G men is found today in the Caucasus Mountains, in several small states to the south of Russia, and in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East. The Sarmatians are the likely origin of Haplogroup G. They were a blend of Iranian nomadic horse tribes that were likely descended from the Scythians. The territory of the Sarmatians was an expansive stretch of land reaching from the Caspian Sea in the East to the Vistula River in the West, and as far south as the Danube. Essentially, Sarmatia was a collection of independent tribes, that encompassed parts of modern Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States, Central Asian nations and into central European countries such as Romania and Poland. 5% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Szostak - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Timirev - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Trifonov - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Uzarski - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Valetov - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Vaskevicius - R1a: Eastern European Origin. The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black & Caspian Seas. This lineage is thought to descend from a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (circa 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is found in central & western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Europe. 55% of modern day Cossacks share this origin.

Zavorokhin - R1b1: Western European Origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 7% of modern day Cossacks share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11, DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Zub - I2a: Central European Origin. The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations. The Vikings belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Western Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. 30% of modern day Cossacks have Haplogroup I or sub-haplogroups I1 and I2. 

Mt-DNA Results: 

Badogova - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Borisova - J1c2: Semitic Origin. The mitochondrial haplogroup J contains several sub-lineages. The original haplogroup J originated in the Near East approximately 50,000 years ago. Within Europe, sub-lineages of haplogroup J have distinct and interesting distributions. Haplogroup J1 is found distributed throughout Europe, from Britain to Iberia and along the Mediterranean coast. This widespread distribution strongly suggests that haplogroup J1 was part of the Neolithic spread of agriculture into Europe from the Near East beginning approximately 10,000 years ago. 17% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Danilova - U7: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U7 has a Near Eastern origin approximately 30,000 years ago. Within Europe, it occurs at low frequency in the Caucasus. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Emtsova - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Gorodeckas - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Kaleychik - HV: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup HV is a primarily European haplogroup that underwent an expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago. It is more prevalent in western Europe than in eastern Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup HV appear in the Near East as a result of more recent migration. One of the dominant mitochondrial haplogroups in Europe, haplogroup HV pre-dates the occurrence of farming in Europe. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

Karcz - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Korbilka - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Kozak - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Kupriute - N1b: Eurasian Origin. The N superhaplogroup has been characterized as pan-Eurasian. Haplogroup N is one of the two major trunks emerging from the original African root, and dates to approximately 65,000 years ago. Interestingly, several sub-haplogroups of the N cluster—haplogroup N1 and derivative lineages—have been detected in the Near East, suggesting either early divergence near the root of haplogroup N or subsequent migrations back towards western Eurasia following the original dispersal into east Eurasia. Future work will further document the historical distribution of this root haplogroup and closely related haplogroups within the N cluster.

Maltseva - U5a1a: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U5, with its own multiple lineages nested within, is the oldest European-specific haplogroup, and its origin dates to approximately 50,000 years ago. Most likely arising in the Near East, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U5 in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe. Haplogroup U5a1a—a lineage within haplogroup U5—arose in Europe less than 20,000 years ago, and is mainly found in northwest and north-central Europe. The modern distribution of haplogroup U5a1a suggests that individuals bearing this haplogroup were part of the populations that had tracked the retreat of ice sheets from Europe. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Melaniuk - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Nikolskaya - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Obrenovich - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Ostrowski - U5a1: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U5, with its own multiple lineages nested within, is the oldest European-specific haplogroup, and its origin dates to approximately 50,000 years ago. Most likely arising in the Near East, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U5 in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe. Haplogroup U5a1—a lineage within haplogroup U5—arose in Europe approximately 30,000 years ago, and is mainly found in northwest Europe. In the context of its rather ancient origin, the modern distribution of haplogroup U5a1 suggests that individuals bearing this haplogroup were part the initial expansion tracking the retreat of ice sheets from Europe. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Panchenko - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Pecherina - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Ruisch - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Shostack - K: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup K is found through Europe, and contains multiple closely related lineages indicating a recent population expansion. The origin of haplogroup K dates to approximately 16,000 years ago, and it has been suggested that individuals with this haplogroup took part in the pre-Neolithic expansion following the Last Glacial Maximum. 6% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Skrzeczynska - W: European Origin. Haplogroup W is derived from the N superhaplogroup, which dates to approximately 65,000 years ago. The origin of haplogroup W dates to approximately 25,000 years ago, and it is mainly found distributed in west Eurasia (or Europe). It is likely that individuals bearing this lineage participated in the expansion into the bulk of Europe following the Last Glacial Maximum. Future work, including obtaining more samples from central Asia, will further refine the historical distribution of this haplogroup and better determine the role it played in the peopling of Europe.

Sokolova - U4: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U4 has its origin in the Upper Palaeolithic, dating to approximately 25,000 years ago. It is widely distributed in Europe, and has been implicated in the expansion of modern humans into Europe occurring before the Last Glacial Maximum. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Sowa - U2e: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U2 is found distributed in the Near East and Europe, though it is maintained a rather low frequency throughout. This sparse, yet widespread, dissemination, when combined with the presence of an allied haplogroup found in India, suggests that haplogroup U2 is very old, and was likely an early lineage of the super-haplogroup U, which arose greater than 50,000 years ago. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Strepuhov - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Szanko - X: Eastern European Origin: Haplogroup X is derived from the N superhaplogroup, which dates to approximately 65,000 years ago. The origin of haplogroup X dates to approximately 30,000 years, and is found distributed throughout the world. Originally found in Europe and thought to be only distributed regionally, the finding of haplogroup X in the Americas startled the human population genetics community. Recently, it has been discovered that there are two major sub-lineages within haplogroup X, and that the geographic distribution and relative ages of these two sub-lineages accord with previous ideas concerning the peopling of the world. Future work on this interesting haplogroup will better document the particulars of the emergence of its distribution and shed more light on regional historical contact and migration. 6% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Szostak - U*: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U*, with its own multiple lineages nested within, dates to older than 50,000 years ago. Most likely originating in central Asia, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U* in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe. Interestingly, individuals with haplogroup U* may have been come in contact with Neandertals living in Europe at the time. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Tarkova - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Tumielewicz - T2: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial haplogroup T is best characterized as a European lineage. With an origin in the Near East greater than 45,000 years ago, the major sub-lineages of haplogroup T entered Europe around the time of the Neolithic 10,000 years ago. Once in Europe, these sub-lineages underwent a dramatic expansion associated with the arrival of agriculture in Europe. Haplogroup T2 is one of the older sub-lineages and may have been present in Europe as early as the Late Upper Palaeolithic. 9% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Ushakova - K: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup K is found through Europe, and contains multiple closely related lineages indicating a recent population expansion. The origin of haplogroup K dates to approximately 16,000 years ago, and it has been suggested that individuals with this haplogroup took part in the pre-Neolithic expansion following the Last Glacial Maximum. 6% of modern day Europeans share this origin.

Waszczynska - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Yarnyh - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Yokubaitis - H: European Origin. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

Zadoronzy - U2: Mediterranean Origin. The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U8 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U2 is found distributed in the Near East and Europe, though it is maintained a rather low frequency throughout. This sparse, yet widespread, dissemination, when combined with the presence of an allied haplogroup found in India, suggests that haplogroup U2 is very old, and was likely an early lineage of the super-haplogroup U, which arose greater than 50,000 years ago. 11% of modern day Europeans share this origin.