Volume 7, Issue 3
May 15, 2008

The World's Only Newsletter Dedicated to Genetic Genealogy

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In This Issue

Editor's Corner

Welcome to this issue of Facts & Genes. Our newsletter covers information for everyone, regardless of your level of experience with Genetic Genealogy, whether you are just beginning to learn about this new tool for genealogy research, or have been managing a Surname Project for some time.

If you are just starting to learn about Genetic Genealogy, you will probably encounter articles that are difficult to understand. As with learning any new subject matter, it will take a little time. You can save these articles for the future, or download them later from our web site, where all issues of the newsletter are available. Regardless of your background, everyone can learn about Genetic Genealogy and be able to use this new tool. A science background is not required.

At any time, if you have any questions or need any help, contact our customer support. The following link provides several selections. Using this link, you can direct your question to the appropriate person, which will result in a quicker response.

Please use the link below instead of replying to this newsletter.

http://www.familytreeDNA.com/contact.html

Family Tree DNA provides a wide variety of educational resources to help you apply Genetic Genealogy to your family history research. In addition, email and telephone consultation is available. To begin your education, past issues of the newsletter are available at our web site. Click on the link below:

http://www.familytreeDNA.com/facts_genes.aspx?act=past

If you change your email address, be sure to change your address for the newsletter. For customers, to change your email address, go to your Personal Page. Click Modify Contact Information. Change your email address, and click the box to the left of Facts & Genes Subscription, if it does not already have a check mark. Newsletter subscribers who are not customers should contact the following to change your email address: editor@FamilyTreeDNA.com

Send your comments, suggestions, tips, and feedback to:
Dexter Montgomery
We hope you enjoy this issue.
Dexter
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Past Issues
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If you missed any of the past issues, they can be found online at FamilyTreeDNA.com. Click on the link below for the past issues of Facts & Genes:

http://www.familytreeDNA.com/facts_genes.aspx?act=past

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In the News: Family Tree DNA Announcements

Family Tree DNA is pleased to announce milestones achieved and new features.

1. The following milestones have been achieved:

Family Tree DNA now has over 125,000 records in our database of Y-DNA results. We also have over 4,700 Surname Projects, which include over 75,000 surnames. Our mtDNA database has over 66,000 results.

2. 5th International Conference on Genetic Genealogy
for Family Tree DNA Group Administrators
Houston, TX
November 8-9, 2008

This year's International Conference on Genetic Genealogy for Group Administrators will be held in Houston, Texas, November 8-9, 2008.

The two day conference will feature leading experts in the field making presentations on a variety of topics related to the use of DNA testing for family history and deep ancestral origins.

The International Conference on Genetic Genealogy for Group Administrators is open to genealogists from all over the world who currently manage Group Projects at Family Tree DNA and want to learn more about DNA testing for genealogy and anthropology.

If you are a Family Tree DNA Group Project Administrator, this conference is an excellent opportunity to increase your knowledge and network with other Group Administrators. If you are thinking of starting a Group Project, now is the time to start your project so that you are eligible to attend the conference.

Mark your calendar for the dates of the conference. Additional information will be available in a future issue of Facts & Genes.

3. 2008 Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree

Family Tree DNA is pleased to announce a change in haplogroup nomenclature, based on the latest research directed by Dr. Hammer of the University of Arizona, and recently published in a scientific paper in Genome Research. The result of this research is a newly updated Y chromosome haplogroup tree.

On May 5th, Family Tree DNA implemented in our database the updated Y chromosome haplogroup tree. Your Y-DNA test marker test results have not changed. What has changed for some persons is their placement in the Y chromosome haplogroup tree. All Family Tree DNA web pages that provide haplogroup information have been updated to reflect the updated Y-DNA tree. These web pages include the Haplogroup tab on your Personal Page, the Family Tree DNA Project web site pages, YSearch pages, and all Group Administrator pages that show haplogroup.

Your Y-DNA test result and interpretation remains the same. Your position in the Y-DNA haplogroup tree many change, and therefore the name of your haplogroup. The position of your haplogroup on the Y-DNA tree and the corresponding haplogroup name could also be subject to further changes in the future as new discoveries update the Y-DNA tree.

The Genographic Project will continue to use the old Y-DNA tree until their update later this year.

Please see the article below, titled "Genetic Genealogy: Y-DNA Haplogroups" for more information.

4. Deep Clade Tests

Family Tree DNA is pleased to announce that our Deep Clade tests have been revised to correspond to the updated 2008 Y-DNA tree. New SNPs(single nucleotide polymorphism) designating tree branches were discovered from recent research lead by Dr. Hammer that resulted in the publication of the new Y-DNA haplogroup tree. All our Deep Clade tests have been updated to reflect the new 2008 Y-DNA haplogroup tree. Please see the article below, titled "Genetic Genealogy: Deep Clade Tests" for more information.

5. Poster of updated 2008 Y-DNA Tree

Family Tree DNA is pleased to announce that a poster of the updated 2008 Y-DNA tree can now be ordered for delivery in a few weeks. This full color poster depicting all the Y-DNA tree branches and corresponding SNPs is an excellent resource. To order your poster, log into your Personal Page. Click "Order Tests & Upgrades", click "Standard Orders", and select "Y-DNA Haplogroup Chart".


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Starting a Surname Project
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If you are thinking of starting a Surname Project, now is the time to get started. Our educational resources, combined with our email and telephone consultation, help you each step of the way. Feeling confused or overwhelmed will quickly pass and be replaced with the excitement of new discoveries.

Anyone with some experience with family history research can start a Surname Project. We supply the tools and guidance to help you make your Surname Project successful.

There are just two steps to take to become a Group Administrator of a Surname Project:

1. Find out if a Surname Project exists for your surname. Click on the link below to search our database of Surname Projects:

http://www.familytreeDNA.com/surname.aspx

2. If a Surname Project has not been established for your surname, then use the email contact below to establish a Surname Project, or to discuss establishing a Surname Project:
ashley@familytreeDNA.com for Ashley Coursey

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Educational Resources: Events & Publications

May 14-17, 2008
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National Genealogical Society Conference
and Family History Fair
Hyatt Regency Crown Center
Kansas City, Missouri USA
www.NGSGenealogy.org
Visit Family Tree DNA at our display.

June 27-29, 2008
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Southern California Genealogical Society (SCGS) Jamboree
Burbank Airport Marriot Hotel and Convention Center
Burbank, California USA
http://www.scgsgenealogy.com/
http://www.scgsgenealogy.com/2008jam-index.htm
Visit Family Tree DNA at our display June 27-29, 2008.
Presentation: Genetic Genealogy 2008-The Evolution of the Revolution.
Date: June 28, 2008
Speaker: Bennett Greenspan, CEO Family Tree DNA

July 11-12, 2008
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South Carolina Genealogical Society
38th Annual Workshop
South Carolina Department of Archives and History
Parklane Road, Columbia, SC USA
http://www.scgen.org/
Presentation: DNA Testing: Why is it important?
Date: July 11, 2008
Speaker: Bennett Greenspan, CEO Family Tree DNA
Presentation: How Do I Use the Results of DNA Testing?
Date: July 12, 2008
Speaker: Bennett Greenspan, CEO Family Tree DNA

July 11-12, 2008
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Stiles Family Reunion
Crowne Plaza Hotel and Convention Center
Houston, Texas USA
http://www.psci.net/~rstiles/
Family Tree DNA Presentation: DNA and Genealogy

July 23-27, 2008
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FinnFest
Sharing the spirit of Finland
Duluth Entertainment and Convention Center
Duluth, MN USA
http://www.finnfest2008.com/
Visit Family Tree DNA at our display.
Presentation: Finland DNA Project
Date: July 26, 2008
Speaker: Bennett Greenspan, CEO Family Tree DNA

August 17-22, 2008
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International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies
(IAJGS) International Conference 2008
Chicago Marriott Downtown Magnificent Mile
Chicago, IL
http://www.chicago2008.org/
Visit Family Tree DNA at our display.
Presentation: The DNA of Ashkenazi Jewry by Genetic Groups
Date: August 20, 2008
Speaker: Bennett Greenspan, CEO Family Tree DNA

November 8-9, 2008
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5th International Conference on Genetic Genealogy
for Family Tree DNA Group Administrators
Houston, TX
Mark your calendar. Additional information will be published in a future issue of Facts & Genes.

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Genetic Genealogy: Y-DNA Haplogroups

When you take a Y-DNA test for 12, 25, 37, or 67 markers, your test result is called a haplotype. In addition, you are provided with information on your haplogroup, or major population group. All members of a haplogroup descend from a common distant ancestor.

Family Tree DNA predicts your haplogroup based on the first 12 markers of your test result. Our proprietary prediction algorithm takes advantage of our database of SNP-tested haplotypes, the most extensive in the world of its kind. In addition, our SNP Assurance Program guarantees a prediction with 100% certainty, or we will provide a SNP test at no charge to determine your haplogroup.

Examples of a haplogroup are the following: R1b, I1a, J2a2b, E1b1c, and R1a.

Haplogroups represent the branches of the tree of Y-DNA. Every male in the world is on one of the branches of the tree. The branch of the tree is identified by SNPs, which is pronounced as "snips" (single nucleotide polymorphism). SNP testing determines your placement on the tree.

A haplogroup is defined as all the male descendants of the single person who first showed a particular mutation, called a SNP. These special mutations are extremely rare, and identify a group of people over a period of tens of thousands of years. Your haplogroup assignment indicates which part of the phylogenetic tree of male Homo Sapiens you descend from.

The major branches of the Y-DNA tree are labeled A through T. These branches then have sub-branches, which may in turn have sub-branches. The scientists created a naming system in 2002 to identify a position on the Y-DNA tree. These names alternate letters and numbers, such as E1b1c. With this name, you can see exactly where a Y-DNA result resides on the Y-DNA tree.

Some haplogroups have more branches and twigs than other haplogroups. This is based on the SNPs that have been discovered and published.

If you have taken a Y-DNA test, there is a tab on your Personal Page called "Haplogroup." When you click on this tab, the proprietary system at Family Tree DNA will predict your haplogroup, based on your 12 marker haplotype. This prediction algorithm compares your 12 marker Y-DNA result with our database of Y-DNA 12 marker results and their corresponding haplogroups.

On your haplogroup page, your 12 marker matches found in the haplogroup database are shown, along with your prediction. At the bottom of the page is a description of your haplogroup.

The area of SNP discovery took off in 1997, when 19 SNPs were identified. The YCC (Y Chromosome Consortium) was created and the first official YCC haplogroup tree was issued in 2002. That tree identified 153 tree branches, or haplogroups, defined by 245 SNPs. There were 18 major haplogroups, A-R.

Between 2004 and 2007 more than 500 new SNPs have been discovered.

Recently a scientific paper was published regarding the research discoveries from a team lead by Dr Hammer of the University of Arizona. The discoveries covered in the paper resulted in a revised Y-DNA tree. This revision, also know as new nomenclature, is now reflected on all the appropriate Family Tree DNA web pages and in Y-Search.

Your Y-DNA test marker test results have not changed. What has changed for some persons is their placement in the Y chromosome haplogroup tree.

To see if your position in the Y-DNA haplogroup tree changed, and therefore the name of your haplogroup changed, log into your Personal Page and click on the Haplogroup tab.

The position of your haplogroup on the Y-DNA tree and the corresponding haplogroup name could be subject to further changes in the future as new discoveries update the Y-DNA tree.

The Genographic Project will continue to use the old Y-DNA tree until their update later this year to the 2008 Y-DNA tree.

A graphic representation of the 2008 Y-DNA Phylogenetic Tree can be found here:

http://www.familytreedna.com/PDF/2008-HaploChart_GR_lores.pdf

For More Information:

Haplogroup FAQ:
http://www.familytreeDNA.com/hap_explain.html

Y-DNA Haplogroup Nomenclature FAQ and links to prior Y-DNA tree:
http://www.familytreeDNA.com/hap_nomenclature.html

Prior Facts & Genes article on Haplogroups.
This article is relevant reading for concepts, though note that the article has references to a prior Y-DNA tree.
http://www.familytreeDNA.com/facts_genes.aspx?act=show&nk=6.1


For an understanding of your deep ancestry and the SNPs that have occurred as humans populated the earth, consider the book or video "The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey" by Spencer Wells, listed on our resource page:

Video and Books we recommend
http://www.familytreeDNA.com/books.html


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Genetic Genealogy: Deep Clade Tests

Our Deep Clade tests provide the opportunity to test the relevant SNPs to determine your exact placement on the Y-DNA haplogroup tree. In conjunction with the updated 2008 Y-DNA tree, our Deep Clade tests have been revised to reflect the recently discovered SNPs defining the branches of the tree.

For those customers who have already taken a Deep Clade test, we are providing a Deep Clade Extension test, to test the additional SNPs discovered. Pricing is based on the number of SNPs in the extension test.

1 to 3 SNPs - $39
4 to 7 SNPs - $49
8 to 11 SNPs - $59

If you have ordered a Deep Clade test, and have not yet received your results, your Deep Clade test will be the revised Deep Clade test based on the 2008 Y-DNA tree.

If you have not taken or ordered a Deep Clade test, consider taking our updated Deep Clade tests provide to determine your placement on the 2008 Y-DNA tree. Your haplogroup is predicted by our proprietary haplogroup prediction system. If we can't predict your haplogroup with 100% certainty, Family Tree DNA provides a Backbone test at no charge, to determine your major branch off the tree. The Deep Clade test will test the relevant SNPs necessary to determine your exact placement within the 2008 Y-DNA tree.

Results of a Deep Clade test are reported as SNP test results are available.

To see all the haplogroup branches where a Deep Clade test is available, see:

http://www.familytreeDNA.com/deepclade.html

The pricing of the Deep Clade tests is based on the number of SNPs to be tested.
E1b1b - $89
G - $79
I - $79
J - $99
R - $89

As more discoveries are made in the future, our Deep Clade tests will be revised and applicable extension tests will be provided.

To order a Deep Clade test or a Deep Clade Extension test, log into your Personal Page. Click on the Haplogroup tab. If a test is available for you, you will see a paragraph starting with the words "Haplogroup test". Click on the "Continue for more information" button.

The next page will provide information about the test available for you, either a Deep Clade test or a Deep Clade Extension test. To proceed with the order process, click "Continue to order".

A Deep Clade test is an opportunity to discover you exact placement on the 2008 Y-DNA tree.


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Genetic Genealogy: Vendor Selection

Selecting a vendor for your DNA test or Surname Project is a very important step. Often, the vendor selected will determine the success of your project. If you are a participant, the vendor selected may determine whether you find matches and whether you maximize your investment in DNA testing, based on the size of the vendor's database.

In the past three articles in our series about vendor selection, we have examined multiple important issues:

- The vendor you select will determine the success of your project
- The size of the vendor's database impacts your ability to find a match
- Select a vendor where DNA testing for genealogy is their only business, not an add on product to generate additional revenue
- The importance of a proprietary database, including data integrity, as compared to no database or a mixed database
- The importance and value of match notification emails
- The benefits of controlling your search criteria for matching
- The benefits of controlling your match criteria

In this article, we will look at the value of sample storage.

Often, participants or those starting a Surname Project make an assumption that since Family Tree DNA, the world leader in DNA testing for genealogy, provides 25 years of secure sample storage included in the price of a test kit, other vendors also provide this service.

Unfortunately, when it is discovered that samples aren't stored, or are only stored for a very short time, it is often too late to take corrective action. The last male for the direct male line is no longer with us.

Taking a DNA test for genealogy is an investment in discovering information not available in the paper records, as well as an investment in discovering information about the surname. The last male in direct male lines are critical to this process of discoveries.

We are at the beginning of the discoveries that will come in the future from the scientists. These discoveries often lead to new tests, such as when we introduced the 25 marker test, then the 37 marker test, and later the 67 marker test.

Several years ago, there was only the 12 marker test, and since then, the number of markers available have increased. In addition, we introduced Backbone haplogroup tests, Deep Clade tests, and a wide variety of tests from our Genomics Research Center in Houston.

Secure sample storage for 25 years enables you to take advantage of new discoveries and tests without providing a new sample. In addition, for those participants who are no longer here, their sample may be very valuable, perhaps even critical, in making a discovery about your family tree or surname, as new tests become available.

You can take action to ensure that your sample continues to provide value and discoveries long after you are gone by adding a responsible party to your kit record in the additional email field, such as a son or daughter. Log into your Personal Page, click Modify Contact Information, and enter an email address in additional emails. Be sure to click Update at the bottom of the page.

You sample is securely stored under only your kit number at the University of Arizona. For those who have also tested at the Genomics Research Center, a sample is securely stored there under only your kit number. Your sample is safe.

At any time you can request that your sample be destroyed.

To provide the maximum benefit of sample storage for 25 years, Family Tree DNA test kits contain 3 vials for your sample. This should provide sufficient sample. For the last living males in a direct male line, we recommend that additional tests be selected conservatively, or that you consider a second test kit of 12 markers only to store an additional 3 vials of the critical male's sample.

Since 2000, Family Tree DNA has been providing DNA tests for genealogists. This is our only business. We have constantly expanded our products and services to bring the latest science and tools to our valued customers. Our track record shows innovation and a commitment to our customers.

How does Family Tree DNA compare:
- DNA testing for genealogy is our only business
- Founded in 2000, we are the first vendor to bring tests to the genetic genealogy community
- The largest database of results
- The only vendor to disclose the size of our database
- Our database has participants from 190 countries
- The largest number of Surname Projects
- The only vendor to disclose the number of Surname Projects
- Full transparency in our search of surnames tested. We don't require 3 characters or more to search. The 3 letter search approach is used by others to hide the small size of the surnames tested. At Family Tree DNA, you can search just a letter of the alphabet to see all our Surname Projects
- The only vendor with a proprietary database of lab results. We don't support a mixed database of user results combined with lab results, resulting in lack of data integrity. Instead, we also provide Ysearch and mitoSearch, to which customers can easily add their data with a click of a button. Some vendors do not provide a proprietary database or even a mixed database
- Match emails sent as soon as a new result is added to our proprietary database that matches or is a close match to your result
- The ability to customize your search criteria
- The ability to customize your match criteria
- 25 years secure frozen sample storage included for 3 vials
- Family Tree DNA has constantly expanded our products and services to bring the latest science and tools to our valued customers. Our track record shows innovation and a commitment to our customers
- Other vendors have come and gone, and we continue to innovate and grow

Family Tree DNA understands that it is often difficult to differentiate vendors when you are getting started. Issues like a proprietary database, no proprietary database, or a mixed database aren't clearly evident. Other features, such as match notification emails, or the lack of match notification emails, are even more difficult to determine.

Every day, people and Surname Projects switch to Family Tree DNA. We understand that there is an additional cost to be re-tested, which is required to maintain our database integrity. A discount is provided to those who have tested elsewhere to make it easier for them to join Family Tree DNA, the leading vendor in Genetic Genealogy.

Click on the link below to order if you have tested at another vendor.

http://www.familytreeDNA.com/PDF/PROMO_GAP.pdf


Would you trust your project to a vendor when Genetic Genealogy is not their primary business?

For additional information, please see prior articles in our Vendor Selection Series.

http://www.familytreeDNA.com/facts_genes.aspx?act=show&nk=6.5

http://www.familytreeDNA.com/facts_genes.aspx?act=show&nk=7.1

http://www.familytreeDNA.com/facts_genes.aspx?act=show&nk=7.2


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Genetic Genealogy: Advanced Tests

This month's featured Advanced Test is the Y-STR DNA-FP Panel 4 (Extended resolution Y-STR panel).

This Advanced Test contains markers for comparison with external public databases. These markers also make haplotypes tested elsewhere compatible to Family Tree DNA standards. We only recommend these panels for filling missing markers or for retesting inconsistent results. DNA-FP panels are set up to continue the compatibility for former DNA-Fingerprint lab clients.

To order an Advanced Test, on your Personal Page, click "Order Tests and Upgrades" and then click "Advanced Orders." Go down the page until you find the Y-STR DNA-FP Panel 4.

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Case Studies in Genetic Genealogy

In each issue of the Newsletter, we present a situation which you may encounter as you utilize Genetic Genealogy testing for your family history research, followed by our recommendation.

Case Study
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If two brothers were born in England in the early 1600's and were the first of that name to come to the colonies, would it be likely that the present day descendents of those brothers would have similar Y-DNA readings?

If the last names became spelled differently, would not the descendents of those two brothers still have similar DNA Haplogroups. Specifically, could descendents of one brother be R1b and the descendents of the other brother be Rla or even G, J, or I?

Also in the haplogroup designations, do the letters designating the female groups and the male groups stand for the same things. Example if one is H and female, is that the same as being H and male?


Recommendation
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If you test a descendent of each of two brothers born in the early 1600s, you would expect their results to be either an exact match or a close match. Their haplogroup would be the same, since this reflects distant origin.

If the two participants are in different haplogroups, this means their common ancestor is tens of thousands of years ago - and not in a genealogy time frame. If this occurs, there are several explanations, including: mistaken connection in the genealogy research, infidelity, a wife marrying who is pregnant by an unrelated man, and informal adoption. The first step is to check the paper trail.

Surnames evolved over time, and spelling was not standardized until the 1900's. It is very typical to find changes in the spelling of a surname prior to the 1900s. The surname may also be spelled different ways in the same document. Most people were illiterate, and when they spoke their name, another party wrote it down, based on how it sounded. Migration often had a significant impact on spelling, due to new pronunciation in the new location.

Therefore, descendents of two brothers could each use a different spelling today. If participants were tested from each descendent, the test results should match or be a close match.

The Y-DNA haplogroup tree is for Y-DNA results, and the mtDNA haplogroups relate to mtDNA results. So a H mtDNA result is distinct from a Y-DNA H haplogroup result. The haplogroup assignments are based on SNPs which define their respective trees.


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Next Issue

We hope you have enjoyed this issue of Facts & Genes. Please feel free to contact the editor with your comments, feedback, questions to be addressed, as well as suggestions for future articles. If you are a Group Administrator and can help others with tips or suggestions, please contact:
editorFG@FamilyTreeDNA.com for Dexter


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