Volume 5, Issue 1
March 27, 2006

The World's Only Newsletter Dedicated to Genetic Genealogy

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In This Issue

Editor's Corner

Welcome to this issue of Facts & Genes and our fifth year of publication! Our newsletter contains articles about Genetic Genealogy, and keeps you informed of the latest scientific advances in this exciting new field. Facts & Genes is the only publication devoted to Genetic Genealogy.

DNA testing is the most powerful tool to ever become available to genealogists. For those who are new to DNA testing for family history, it can seem overwhelming and technical. Genetic Genealogy is not any more complicated than learning about the various records available that may contain information about your ancestors.

The easiest way to learn is to take a DNA test. If you want information about your direct female line, which is your mother, her mother, and so forth back in time, you would order an mtDNA test. If you want more information about your direct male line, you must be male, or find a male in your family tree such as your brother or father to participate. For the male, the direct male line would be his father, his father's father, and on up the tree. The male would order a Y DNA test.

Family Tree DNA provides a wide variety of educational resources to help you apply Genetic Genealogy to your family history research. In addition, email and telephone consultation is available. To begin your education, past issues of the newsletter are available at our web site. Click on the link below:


Each month, we receive over 100,000 visitors to our web site. This is a opportunity for those with your surname to find your Surname Project and join. If a Surname Project doesn't exist for your surname, consider starting a project. Family Tree DNA hosts over 2,900 Surname Projects and has the largest DNA database for Genetic Genealogy.

Anyone with experience with family history research can start a Surname Project. We supply the tools and guidance so your Surname Project is successful.

The Genographic Project by National Geographic sold over 100,000 test kits in 2005. Each of these participants can transfer their results to the Family Tree DNA database at no charge and join a Surname Project, Geographical Project, or both. This partnership between Family Tree DNA and National Geographic benefits the Genetic Genealogy community, and provides additional participants for Projects, and an opportunity to find unknown Genetic Cousins.

Occasionally, Group Administrators order test kits in a batch, for distribution to participants. When this occurs, the name and address of the participant must later be entered, either by the Group Administrator or the participant, in order for the Certificate of Results to have the correct name and address. If you are a participant whose test kit came from a batch order by your Group Administrator, please contact your Group Administrator to have your name and address updated.

If you change your email address, be sure to change your address for the newsletter. To change your Email address, go to the link below.


This link is also provided at the end of each newsletter.

Send your comments, suggestions, tips, and feedback to: editor@FamilyTreeDNA.com. We hope you enjoy this issue.

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Past Issues
If you missed any of the past issues, they can be found online at FamilyTreeDNA.com. Click on the link below for the past issues of Facts & Genes:



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In the News: Family Tree DNA Announces a 59 Marker Y DNA Test

Family Tree DNA is pleased to announce the availability of 59 Markers for Y DNA testing. These additional markers set a new industry standard of product offerings for Genetic Genealogy.

The 59 marker Y DNA test includes 22 additional markers which will provide more information. This information may be helpful in a variety of situations, including determining the time to the common ancestor, identifying branches of a family tree, or resolving matches with other surnames.

These additional 22 markers were carefully chosen to provide the optimum mix of marker stability and mutation.

Orders may now be placed for test kits for the 59 Markers.

Upgrade orders can also now be placed. A 12 Marker test can be upgraded to either 25 or 37 or 59 Markers. A 25 Marker test can be upgraded to 37 Markers or 59 Markers. A 37 Marker test can be upgraded to 59 Markers. Since testing at Family Tree DNA includes 25 years of sample storage at no additional charge, upgrade orders do not require that a new test kit is sent. The sample storage is especially beneficial for your older relatives, so that they can participate in future advances in the field of Genetic Genealogy.

These new 22 Markers for our Y DNA test will provide additional resolution and especially benefit individuals within our popular Surname Projects. The additional Markers may indicate the branches of family trees, and will reduce the time frame of the common ancestor.

For those who are a 12/12 or 25/25 or 37/37 match with another surname, an upgrade to 59 Markers is recommended before pursuing the match.

Pricing for the 59 Marker test and the upgrades to 59 Markers is available at our web site. If you belong to a Surname Project, or have had a test done at Family Tree DNA, log into your Personal Page and click order tests to see the pricing.

For those who have not had a test at Family Tree DNA, to order a 59 Marker Y DNA test, either order through a Surname Project for Project Pricing, or click on the link below:


As Family Tree DNA sets a new industry landmark for Genetic Genealogy with the launching of the 59 Marker Y DNA test, we would like to thank all of our customers for their continued support, which makes us the leading company in the field of Genetic Genealogy. We also renew our commitment to stay in the forefront of the field, whether by prompting research of new markers and methods that can contribute to the advancement of the genealogical quest, or by bringing our customers additional tools which will help in your family history research.

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In the News: Family Tree DNA Announces New Pricing

In conjunction with the announcement of the 59 Marker Y DNA test, and as a result of economy of scale from our increased volume and implementation of robot technology at the lab, we are pleased to announce new pricing.

The prices for the Y-DNA tests have been reduced, and the 25 marker test is now available only through projects. Those taking a Y-DNA test outside a project will have a choice of 12 Markers, 37 Markers or 59 Markers.

Pricing is available at our web site. To receive Project Pricing, you must order as a member of a Project. To order as a member of a Surname Project, first find out if a Surname Project exists for your surname. Click on the link below to search our database of Surname Projects:


If a Surname Project has not been established for your surname, then order your test with the link below, or contact us to establish a Surname Project.

To order tests:

To discuss establishing a Surname Project:
leahw@familytreeDNA.com for Leah Wark

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In the News: Family Tree DNA Announcements

Family Tree DNA is pleased to announce milestones achieved and new features.

1. The following milestones have been achieved:

Family Tree DNA now has over 58,000 records in our database of Y-DNA results. We also have over 2,900 Surname Projects, which include over 45,000 surnames.

2. Y DNA Tree Updated

Family Tree DNA has updated the sub-Haplogroup classification for R1b, based on recent scientific discoveries.

A SNP test is taken to confirm your Haplogroup, and our Deep Clade Haplogroup test is taken to determine your sub-haplogroup. A single SNP is tested for the Haplogroup. The Deep Clade test for a Haplogroup tests multiple SNPs. The result for these tests report the status of the SNP. For example, if you took the Haplogroup test for the I Haplogroup, and you belonged to this Haplogroup, your result would be reported as P19+.

The results for the Deep Clade Haplogroup test reports the value for multiple SNPs.

Over time, as more discoveries are made, your classification for your sub-haplogroup may change. The results for your SNP have not changed, only the definition of the branches and twigs of the Y DNA tree have changed. For example, now that M343 has been found to be in between R1 (M173) and P25 (the old R1b), P25 has been pushed down the tree. As a result of this discovery, P25 now determines the sub-Haplogroup R1b1. Prior to the discovery, P25 determined R1b.

If you are confirmed as P25 or you are predicted as P25, then your Haplogroup Page has been updated to show R1b1, instead of the prior classification of R1b.

3. Sub-Groups

Group Administrators can now assign participants to a sub-group. Once sub-groups are established, participants will be group together on the Generate Y-DNA Results page by sub-group and the name of the sub-group is displayed. This new feature is a terrific tool to make managing your project easier as it grows.

For Surname Projects, sub-groups can be used to indicate the family tree or line that the participant represents. Participants who belong to the same family tree will be grouped together on the Y-DNA Results page.

The Group Administrator chooses the type of sub-groups they want.

To implement sub-groups for your project, go to your Group Administrator Page, and click on "Members Subgrouping."

A page will come up where you type in the name of the sub-group to create the sub-group, and then select the participants to place in this sub-group.

A participant can only belong to one sub-group, so your list of unassigned participant will shrink as you assign participants to sub-groups.

You can move a participant from one sub-group to another by deleting him from one sub-group. He will go back on the unassigned list, and you can then assign him to another sub-group.

You can also delete any subgroups at any time, as well as get a list of existing sub-groups.

When you set up a sub-group, you have the option of selecting a color for the sub-group. Utilizing these colors will enable you to create a Y-DNA Results Page that is easier to follow.

If you use sub-groups to identify the different family trees who have tested in the project, you can utilize the colors to denote all the family trees that are related. To accomplish this, use the same color for related family trees. Related family trees indicate a common ancestor for the family trees.

If you use sub-groups, your Y DNA Results Page will be sorted in order by sub-group, with all participants who belong to a sub-group shown under its name. To have related sub-groups appear on the Y DNA Results Page together, give some thought as to the names of your sub-groups.

The new sub-group feature will make managing your project easier.

4. Member Distribution Map

A new tool has been implemented for Group Administrators. A selection now appears on your Group Administrator Page labeled "View Member Distribution Map." To access this feature, click on this item on your Group Administrator Page.

Maps are available for Y DNA and mtDNA. You have the option to see either a map showing the location of the most distant ancestors, or the location of the participants.

These maps are powered by GoogleMaps, which allows you to zoom out to a full world map or zoom in to a street level map.

The location of participants is determined by their zip code for USA participants. The location of participants in other countries will be added in the next update.

The location of the most distant ancestor is determined by the latitude and longitude coordinates entered for their location. This information is entered on the participants Setup Preferences Page. Directions can be found on this page for identifying the latitude and longitude coordinates. Encourage your participants to enter the coordinates for their most distant direct male and direct female ancestor.

For more information, click on "View Member Distribution Map" on your Group Administrator Page, and then click on "Ancestry Map Instructions for Group Administrators."

5. Web Builder Tool Enhancements

Web sites created by the Family Tree DNA Web Builder Tool now offer the option of a single or multi-page web site. These web sites are hosted by Family Tree DNA at no charge.

Group Administrators can access the Web Builder Tool by clicking "Family Project Website Setup" on their Group Administrator Page.

The first option is labeled "Use Tabs." A check mark in the box will create a multi-page web site, where each of the blocks of data appear on a separate page. Remove the check mark to have a one page web site. The default for established web sites is to "Use Tabs," so a check mark was automatically placed in the box when this feature was implemented.

A new feature is also available to display maps of the most distant ancestor location on your web site. On the Website Setup page, below the boxes where the text for the web site is entered, see the selections to show maps.

6. Email from Group Administrator to Participants

A new feature is now available on the Group Administrator Page where you can send emails to all the participants in the project. To utilize this feature, go to your Group Administrator Page and click on Bulk E-mail. A page will come up where you enter a subject line and the body of the message, and then click send.

Please note that participants can opt-out of receiving these emails on their Setup Preferences Page. The default setting is to receive the emails. This setting can only be changed by the participant. To change the setting, and opt-out of emails from the Group Administrator, the participant logs into their Personal Page, and then clicks Setup Preferences, and selects NO for "Allow Group Administrator to send e-mails to your e-mail address." The Group Administrator cannot see this setting for a participant.

We recommend that you compose your message in a Word Processing program, for ease of editing and spell checking. Then simply copy your message to the block on your Bulk E-mail Page.

The ability to email all your participants is an excellent tool to keep participants informed of major events and news regarding your Project, as well as to send any reminders.

If you are thinking of starting a Surname Project, now is the time to get started. Our educational resources, combined with our email and telephone consultation, help you each step of the way. Being confused or overwhelmed will quickly pass, and be replaced with the excitement of new discoveries.

Anyone with experience with family history research can start a Surname Project. We supply the tools and guidance so your Surname Project is successful.

There are just two steps to take to become a Group Administrator of a Surname Project:

1. Find out if a Surname Project exists for your surname. Click on the link below to search our database of Surname Projects:


2. If a Surname Project has not been established for your surname, then use the email contact below to establish a Surname Project, or to discuss establishing a Surname Project:
leahw@familytreeDNA.com for Leah Wark

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The Year In Review: 2005

2005 was an exciting year at Family Tree DNA. Every day, more genealogists are discovering Genetic Genealogy. As you can see from the size of our database, these genealogists are choosing Family Tree DNA.

We started the year with 1,400 Surname Projects, and finished the year with over 2,700 Surname Projects!!

DNA testing is the most powerful tool ever to be available to genealogists. Genetic Genealogy is still in its infancy, and the majority of those researching their family history are not yet aware of this new tool and how DNA testing will assist them with their research.

In April 2005, the National Geographic Society announced the Genographic Project. Testing is provided by Family Tree DNA, and participants can upgrade to the FamilyTreeDNA database at no charge. The Genographic Project sold over 100,000 test kits in 2005, introducing many people to the power of Genetic Genealogy.

In 2005, Family Tree DNA held the 2nd International Conference on Genetic Genealogy for Family Tree DNA Group Administrators at the headquarters of the National Geographic Society. The conference was an outstanding success and an excellent opportunity to hear from experts in the field.

Family Tree DNA also announced a new product in 2005, Y-DNA Deep Clade Panel SNP Tests, and the full mtDNA sequence test.

In 2005, Family Tree DNA introduced many enhancements for Group Administrators. Here are just a few:

Family Forum
Messages from your Group Administrator
Contributions "in memory of" or "in honor of" a specific person

A few other accomplishments in 2005:
Setup Preferences
Option to join the Genographic Project
Upload your pedigree so a family tree icon appears for your matches.
Join Options Increased

In our January 2005 newsletter, we promised an aggressive plan of developing new features and products for our customers. We hope you will agree that our 2005 results met that commitment.

For 2006, we renew our commitment to our valued customers: We will implement an aggressive plan of new features and products.

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Educational Resources: Events & Publications

If you would like to learn more about Genetic Genealogy, we invite you to attend the events listed below. Please see the relevant web sites for registration information.

Create a DNA Project Website with Microsoft FrontPage
Friday, July 14, 2006 5:30 - 8:30 p.m.
Greenville, SC Public Library
Greenville, South Carolina
Class size limited to 20
Registration required - Public welcome
RSVP: Katherine Borges kvjjmmborges@msn.com

Educational Articles

Taking A Y Dna Test: What Can You Expect?
Family Chronicle Magazine
March/April 2006 Issue
Available at news stands

Exploring Your Family Tree with DNA
Family Chronicle Magazine
January/February 2006 Issue
Available from the Publisher

DNA and the Surname Meates in Australia and New Zealand
Australian Family Tree Connections Magazine
January 2006 Issue
Available from the Publisher

How a DNA Project Produced Discoveries
Journal of One-Name Studies
Guild of One-Name Studies
London, England
January-March 2006 Issue (Part I)
April-June 2006 Issue (Part II)
Available from the Society

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Geographical Project Announcements

If you start a Geographical Project and would like an announcement to appear in our newsletter, email the Editor with a brief description of your project: editor@familytreeDNA.com

If a Geographical Project exists, and you would like an announcement in our newsletter, email the Editor with a brief description.

The following new Regional Projects are announced:

East Anglia

The East Anglia Geographic DNA Project is for anyone whose paternal (Y-DNA) OR maternal (mtDNA) ancestry traces to the southeast region of England, collectively known as East Anglia.

For the purposes of this project East Anglia is defined by its historical boundaries, which include the counties of Suffolk (SFK), Norfolk (NFK) and Cambridgeshire (CAM); plus northern Essex (ESS) and southeast Lincolnshire(LIN).

See the web site for further information, the criteria to join, and the directions to join.

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Y DNA: Niall of the Nine Hostages

In January the results of a study conducted by Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, were announced. This study showed that large percentage of men in northwest Ireland, 21.5%, share they same Y DNA result. These results suggest that the 5th-century warlord known as "Niall of the Nine Hostages" may be the ancestor of one in 12 Irishmen. Niall established a dynasty of powerful chieftains that dominated the island for six centuries.

In the study, scientists found an area in northwest Ireland where 21.5% of the men have the same Y DNA result. The same area of Ireland has previously been the subject of other studies, which have shown a high % of men from Haplogroup R1b (98%) versus 90% in S.E. Ireland. According to McEvoy, one of the team at Trinity, this area was the main power base of the Ui Neills, which literally translated means "descendants of Niall".

McEvoy says the Y chromosome appeared to trace back to one person. Following the genealogists trail McEvoy comments: "There are certain surnames that seem to have come from Ui Neill. We studied if there was any association between those surnames and the genetic profile. It is his (Niall's) family."

Of note to Family Tree DNA customers, this signature is found in .6 of 1% of the entire family Tree DNA database. It is characterized by the following markers when our 12 marker test is applied:

13 25 14 11 11 13 12 12 12 13 14 29

At 25 markers:
13 25 14 11 11 13 12 12 12 13 14 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 18 30 15 16 16 17

The result for Ui Naill can be found at www.ysearch.org:


McEvoy states: "As in other polygynous societies, the siring of offspring was related to power and prestige." The study mentions that just one of the O'Neill dynasty chieftains who died in 1423 had 18 sons with nearly a dozen women and claimed 59 grandsons.

Niall of the Nine Hostages received his name from the taking of hostages as a strategy for playing mental havoc upon his opponent chieftains. He is known in folklore as a raider of the British and French coasts. Supposedly slain in the English Channel or in Scotland, his descendants were the most powerful rulers of Ireland until the 11th century.

Modern surnames tracing their ancestry to Niall include (O')Neill, (O')Gallagher, (O')Boyle, (O')Doherty, O'Donnell, Connor, Cannon, Bradley, O'Reilly, Flynn, (Mc)Kee, Campbell, Devlin, Donnelly, Egan, Gormley, Hynes, McCaul, McGovern, McLoughlin, McManus, McMenamin, Molloy, O'Kane, O'Rourke and Quinn.

Journal reference: American Journal of Human Genetics(February issue)

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Genetic Genealogy: How to Get Started

Have you been thinking about taking a DNA test and don't know where to start or which test to select?

Are your parents or grandparents elderly and you want to make sure you get a DNA sample?

Is there only one male left in the direct male line of your family tree?

Have you encountered a brick wall in your genealogy research and don't know what to do next?

Getting started with DNA testing for genealogy is not any more difficult than the various records you have learned about as you have pursued your family history research. A science background is not necessary.

This getting started guide covers the different DNA tests available, and will help you select a test.

There are two types of DNA tests available for genealogy: Y DNA Tests and mtDNA Tests.

The Y DNA tests are only available for males, since this test involves testing a small portion of the Y chromosome, which is passed from father to son, typically unchanged. Males have both an X and a Y chromosome. They receive the X chromosome from their mother, and the Y chromosome from their father. Females have two X chromosomes, one each from their father and mother.

Testing Y DNA provides information about the direct male line which would be the father, his father, his father, and so forth, back in time. Scientists have discovered that a small portion of the Y chromosome is passed from father to son virtually unchanged. Therefore, if a father and son are tested, their results would usually match. If two male cousins are tested, who have the same grandfather, their results would match or be a close match.

By comparing the result from a Y DNA test of two males, you can determine if they are related and approximately when the common ancestor occurred.

The locations tested on the Y chromosome for the Y DNA test are called Markers. There are 4 versions of the Y DNA test available:

Y-DNA12 tests 12 Markers
Y-DNA25 tests 25 Markers (For Surname Projects Only)
Y-DNA37 tests 37 Markers
Y-DNA59 tests 59 Markers

The 25 Marker test includes the Markers that are tested in the 12 Marker test. The 37 Marker test includes the Markers that are tested in the 25 Marker test. The 59 Marker test includes the Markers tested in the 37 Marker test.

If a person starts with the 12 Marker test, they can later upgrade to either the 25 Marker test(for Surname Projects) or the 37 Marker test or the 59 Marker tests. The 25 Marker test can be upgraded to 37 Markers or 59 Markers, and the 37 Marker test can also be upgraded to 59 Markers.

Selecting the number of Markers to test is primarily a budget consideration. More Markers provide more information. More Markers will also provide more accuracy in the estimated time frame for the common ancestor. In addition, more Markers will eliminate matches that aren't relevant in a genealogical time frame.

The 12 Marker test is best at proving that two males do not have a common ancestor in a genealogical time frame. For all other situations, the 37 Marker or 59 Marker test is recommended. The additional information from the 37 Marker or 59 Marker test far exceeds the incremental cost.

When the budget is available, select the 37 Marker or 59 Marker test. In most cases, those who start with the 12 Marker test or 25 Marker test typically upgrade later. You can save on your cost of testing by selecting the 59 Marker test initially.

Y DNA testing has a wide range of applications because the Y chromosome typically follows surnames. In addition, the Y DNA test can resolve a broad spectrum of problems and provides information about the direct male line.

Y DNA testing is used in Surname Projects. Surname Projects involve testing one or more males from each identified line or family tree of a surname, to determine which lines are related, and therefore have a common ancestor. Surname Projects can also identify the number of origins for a surname. In addition, Surname Projects often provide clues for further family history research and locations for research, as well as save people research time with these clues.

Both males and females inherit mtDNA from their mothers. Testing mtDNA provides information about the direct female line of the person, which would be their mother, their mother’s mother, and so forth.

mtDNA testing provides information about the origin of your direct female ancestral line. The result of the mtDNA test would tell you which of the "Daughters of Eve" was your ancestor.

There are situations where mtDNA testing can also be applied to your genealogy research. An example of utilizing mtDNA testing for genealogy would be where an ancestor had two wives, and multiple daughters, and you want to determine which daughters had which mother. In this case, you would need to find direct descent female descendents of the daughters and test them. Lets assume that Daughter 1 is documented with Mother A and Daughter 4 is documented with Mother B. You are uncertain of the mother for Daughters 2 and 3. You would find female descendents of the daughters, in the direct female line, and test 1 descendent of each of the 4 daughters. The descendents of Daughter 1 and Daughter 4 should have different results, and depending on which of these results the descendents of Daughter 2 and 3 match, tells you whom the mother was of Daughters 2 and 3.

The mtDNA test is available in 2 versions. These tests are called:

mtDNA Plus

The test called mtDNA provides a result for the region of mtDNA called HVR1. The test called mtDNA Plus tests two regions of mtDNA, HVR1 and HVR2. (HVR stands for Hyper Variable Region).

If you want to find mtDNA matches in a genealogical time frame, select the mtDNA Plus test.

Anyone with an understanding of family history research can utilize DNA testing. It isn't necessary to have a scientific background. The few scientific terms you will encounter will be explained.

It is easy to get started. Typically, you would want to start with a test of your direct male line and your direct female line. If you are female, you would need your father or brother or other close male relative to participate for the Y DNA test to represent your direct male line.

You can check at Family Tree DNA to see if there is a Surname Project established for your direct male line. You can perform a search by clicking on the link below:


If you find a Surname Project for your direct male line, order your DNA tests as a member of this Surname Project. The Group Administrator will provide you with assistance in interpreting your results. In addition, telephone and email support and consultation is available from Family Tree DNA.

If you don't find a Surname Project, to order a Y DNA and/or mtDNA test:


DNA testing is the most powerful tool to ever become available to genealogists. For those who are new to DNA testing for family history, it can seem overwhelming and technical. Genetic Genealogy is not any more complicated than learning about the various records available that may contain information about your ancestors.

The easiest way to learn is to take a DNA test.

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Recruiting Participants: Annual Update

With a new year, it is a good time to revise and update your Project Profile and web site.

The Project Profile is very important. This page may be the first item many potential participants see about your Surname Project. Is your profile friendly, inviting, and easy to understand? Does the Project Profile motivate a visitor to click on the link to the project web site? Is there a brief mention of the exciting discoveries they can make by participating?

If you are not achieving the success recruiting participants that you desire, it might be time for a complete re-write of your Project Profile.

An important component of your Project Profile is the surname variants that you establish. If you select surnames as variants, that aren't variants, a potential participant will wonder about your project, and not be motivated to participate.

Be sure to list all variants, so you do not miss visitors to our site, or those upgrading to Family Tree DNA from the Genographic Project.

An annual review and update, or creation, of your web site is a great way to start the year. Over the last year you have achieved some results from your Surname Project which should be shown. Perhaps the goals for the Surname Project have changed over time and need to be updated.

Often it is hard to critique our own work. Ask other's to review your Project Profile and web site. The best reviewers will be those who have limited knowledge about DNA testing for genealogy. The majority of the potential participants that may visit your Project Profile or web site typically fit this profile.

Fancy graphics and a variety of colors aren't required to have an effective web site. An easy to follow and well organized web site, that communicates clearly, will achieve these objectives.

Avoid items which will slow down the loading of your web site, and do not convince potential participants to participate, such as music and large graphics or photos.

For further information, see the following articles:

Recruiting Participants: The Web Site

Recruiting Participants: State the Benefits

Managing a Surname Project: The Project Profile

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Case Studies in Genetic Genealogy

In each issue of the Newsletter, we present a situation which you may encounter as you utilize Genetic Genealogy testing for your family history research, followed by our recommendation.

Case Study
I recently read on a mailing list that the modal haplotype is the Ancestral Result. Is this true?

The Ancestral Result is the result for the progenitor of your family tree. The modal haplotype is the most common result for the participants tested.

Most likely these two items are different. The modal haplotype is a function of the participants who have tested. For example, a mutation may have occurred early in a branch of a family tree, and in this branch there were a large number of sons, and as a result, there is a large number of participants from this branch. Therefore, the modal haplotype will show this mutation, but the ancestral result does not contain the mutation.

Volunteer testing often results in different branches of the tree represented in different frequencies.

The Ancestral Result is the important result for your family tree. Mutations in participant results are determined as compared to the Ancestral Result. In addition, the Ancestral Result for each family tree is compared, combined with research, to determine which family trees descend from the same surname origin.

To determine the Ancestral Result, participants descending from two or more sons of the progenitor of your family tree are tested. If their result does not match, then a participant is needed for an additional son, to determine which son of the progenitor had a mutation. If the progenitor only had two sons with male descendents today, then the ancestral result can be determined for the marker with the mutation by evaluating the Ancestral Result for other family trees that are a close match.

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Next Issue

We hope you have enjoyed this issue of Facts & Genes. Please feel free to contact the editor with your comments, feedback, questions to be addressed, as well as suggestions for future articles. If you are a Group Administrator and can help others with tips or suggestions, please contact: editor@FamilyTreeDNA.com

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