In many cases, you are more likely to be recently related to a match who also shares your surname. However, there are several reasons why recently related individuals may not share the same surname (undocumented adoption, false paternity). If the match is with one of our basic tests (Y-DNA12 or Y-DNA25), it may make sense to upgrade to a Y-NDA37, Y-DNA67, or Y-DNA111 test to increase the precision or further exclude the probability of a recent common ancestor.