If Y-chromosome haplogroups change, does that mean my results are wrong or inconclusive?

No. Y-chromosome DNA SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) test results are definitive. They are not [...]

What was the first version of the Y Chromosome Consortium’s phylogenetic tree?

The first version of the Y Chromosome Consortium’s (YCC) tree was the YCC 2002 [...]

When should I take a Y-DNA haplogroup test?

The need to test for your Y-Chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroup depends on your research [...]

On the Y-DNA – Haplotree page, what do the letters and numbers in the Haplogroup Information box mean?

We show the SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) results from our Y-DNA SNP tests (transferred [...]

On Public Project Websites, why are some haplogroups shown in red? Why are other haplogroups shown in green?

On Public Project Websites, a Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroup is shown in red when it has been [...]

Should I test my Y-chromosome (Y-DNA) haplogroup?

If your interest is in your ancient ancestry and historic migrations then an extensive [...]

What is the difference between a Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroup project and a surname or paternal lineage project?

Both types of group projects look at the direct paternal lineage. However, they have [...]

What is a Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroup project?

A Y-DNA haplogroup project is a group project based on the results of Y-chromosome DNA [...]

What does a Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroup tell us?

Haplogroups and their subclades (branches) mark human migrations. Thus, learning about haplogroups can tell [...]

What is a Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroup?

Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups are the major branches on the human paternal family tree. Each [...]