The Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence (RSRS) is a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) reference sequence that uses both a global sampling of modern human samples and samples from ancient hominids. It was introduced in early 2012 as a replacement for the rCRS (revised Cambridge Reference Sequence). Because it is based on the likely modal haplotype of the common ancestor to both modern humans and such ancient groups as the Neanderthals, it shows an unbiased path back from any one modern mtDNA sequence to our distant common maternal ancestor.


  • Behar, D. M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.-L., Silva, N. M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A., and Villems, R. (2012). A ” copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 90(4):675-684.