What is a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion? What is the nomenclature for displaying them?

Deletions are types of DNA mutations. They are places in your DNA where nucleotides [...]

What is an mtDNA insertion? What is the nomenclature for displaying them?

Insertions are types of DNA mutations. They are places in your DNA where nucleotides [...]

What is an mtDNA transversion? What is the nomenclature for displaying them?

Transversions are types of DNA mutations. They are places in your DNA where nucleotides [...]

What is an mtDNA transition? What is the nomenclature for displaying them?

Transitions are types of DNA mutations. They are places in your DNA where nucleotides [...]

Where are apostrophes (‘) used in mtDNA haplogroup names?

Apostrophes are used to create a common branch between two well-established branch points in [...]

Where are zeros (0)s used in mitochondrial haplogroup names?

Zeros are used when a new branch point needs to be inserted above a [...]

Why do we inherit only our maternal mitochondria?

Male sperm contain paternal mitochondria. After cell fertilization, the paternal mitochondria are eliminated from [...]

Is the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome completely independent of the nuclear cell genome?

No, it is not. Over time, some of the genetic code from the mitochondrial [...]

What are mitochondria?

Mitochondria are specialized subunits (organelle) within cells. In humans, mitochondria are responsible for cell [...]

Why do I have a lot of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) test matches?

Some mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes show a high number of matches. There are two [...]

Why don’t I have HVR1 and HVR2 (HVR1,HVR2) combined matches?

If you do not have HVR1 matches, you will not have HVR1 and HVR2 [...]

Why don’t I have HVR1 matches?

You are the first person with your particular HVR1 sequence to be in our [...]

Is my mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation medical? Is mitochondrial heteroplasmy medical?

Family Tree DNA offers mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) full sequence tests strictly for genealogy and [...]

What is a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmy?

Heteroplasmy is the presence of more than one type of a genome (in this [...]

Why are some of my mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations found on other branches of the tree?

Some mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are found throughout the mtDNA tree. This is because [...]

What are mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations?

Mutations are changes to your DNA code. They are natural copying errors. One analogy [...]

What do my differences from the RSRS (Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence) mean?

When we test mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), your results are a list of the four bases that [...]

What is the Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence (RSRS)?

The Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence (RSRS) is a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) reference sequence that [...]

What version of the mtDNA Tree Does Family Tree DNA use?

We use the V14 version of Phylotree published in Behar et al. 2012, A “copernican” [...]

What are mtDNA macrohaplogroups? What are supergroups? Are they the same?

Macrohaplogroups (sometimes called supergroups) are the foundation for a number of other haplogroups. They [...]