When we test mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), your results are a list of the four bases that make up DNA, represented by the first letter of their name (Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine).

Your results are then compared to the RSRS (Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence). Where you have a different nucleotide in your sequence from the RSRS a mutation is noted. Rather than provide you with a long list of letters we, present your results as a much shorter list of locations on the RSRS sequence and changes to the DNA or mutations.

As an example, if the difference is listed in your chart, then at location 16187 instead of having the Thymine value that the RSRS does, your sequence has a Cytosine.

Haplogroup – H
HVR1 differences from RSRS
A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C
G16230A T16278C C16311T
HVR2 differences from RSRS
 G73A C146T C152T C195T
A247G 309.1C 315.1C
Coding Region differences from RSRS
A769G A825t A1018G G2706A
A2758G C2885T T3594C G4104A
T4312C T7028C G7146A T7256C
A7521G T8468C T8655C G8701A
C9540T G10398A T10664C A10688G
C10810T C10873T C10915T A11719G
A11914G T12705C G13105A G13276A
T13506C T13650C T14766C