How do I know which of my heteroplasmic values is ancestral (original) and which is derived (new)?

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To find which version of a heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) result is original and [...]

From which “Daughter of Eve” do I descend?

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The Daughters of Eve are named after some of the major haplogroups, but the [...]

How do I tell how closely I am related to a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) match?

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The closeness of a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) match depends on the matching level. Matches [...]

How do I find the genealogical connection with my mtDNA match?

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The only way to find a connection with your match is by comparing your [...]

How do you perform mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) tests?

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Family Tree DNA currently uses next generation sequencing (NGS) technology to process all mtDNA [...]

Are there exceptions to the alphanumeric naming of mitochondrial haplogroups?

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Yes, there are two exceptions to the alphanumeric naming of mitochondrial haplogroups. The first [...]

Will my mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) results show me admixture percentages for ancestry from different lines?

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No, because mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is inherited exclusively from your direct maternal line, it [...]

How common is mtDNA heteroplasmy?

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All mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations go through a state of heteroplasmy. The frequency of [...]

How is mtDNA heteroplasmy inherited?

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In each generation, it is possible for the child to inherit the heteroplasmic genome, [...]

How do mitochondrial mutations occur?

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Every human cell contains hundreds of mitochondria. Each mitochondrion in a cell contains multiple [...]

Where can I share information with others who have mtDNA tested?

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There is an mtDNA section in Family Tree DNA’s Forums. (http://forums.familytreedna.com/forumdisplay.php?f=13)

How do I use mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) to help with my recent genealogy?

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To find connections in recent times, it is necessary to find and test multiple [...]

Are all of a mother’s new mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations inherited by children?

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No, mothers only pass on those mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations they inherited from their [...]

Do all direct maternal (mitochondrial DNA) lineages trace to Africa?

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Yes so far, all direct maternal (mitochondrial DNA) lineages of women alive today trace [...]

How does the formation of the human egg cell change the frequency of an mtDNA heteroplasmic mutation?

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At one point during the process by which the egg cell is produced (oogenesis), [...]

How do they name mtDNA Haplogroups?

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In general, scientists name mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups according to their major branch with [...]

Are the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups predicted or confirmed?

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The haplogroup designation provided with mtDNA test results from Family Tree DNA and our [...]

As a genealogist, do I really need to understand all of this complex information about mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in order to use it for my research?

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No, as a genealogist, you may focus on a few basic rules. These will [...]

How many generations back does mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) testing trace?

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Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) testing covers both recent and distant generations.

Matching on HVR1 means that [...]

How do I know if I have an mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) heteroplasmy? What is the nomenclature?

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You will know that one of your mutations or differences from the RSRS is [...]