A4 mtDNA

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mtDNA Haplogroup A4

The modern geography of A4 and its subclades spans Eastern Eurasia and the Americas. This project was formed to study and better understand mitochondrial haplogroup A4.  When making inquiries about this project, please contact all project adminstrators (i.e., together, in a single email message) so that whomever might happen to be able to answer first, or whomever has the most appropriate expertise, can do so.



  • Derenko, M., Malyarchuk, B., Grzybowski, T., Denisova, G., Dambueva, I., Perkova, M., Dorzhu, C., Luzina, F., Lee, H. K. K., Vanecek, T., Villems, R., and Zakharov, I. (2007). Phylogeographic analysis of mitochondrial DNA in northern asian populations. American journal of human genetics, 81(5):1025-1041.
  • Dulik, M. C., Zhadanov, S. I., Osipova, L. P., Askapuli, A., Gau, L., Gokcumen, O., Rubinstein, S., and Schurr, T. G. (2012). Mitochondrial DNA and y chromosome variation provides evidence for a recent common ancestry between native americans and indigenous altaians. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 90(2):229-246.
  • Gokcumen, O., Dulik, M. C., Pai, A. A., Zhadanov, S. I., Rubinstein, S., Osipova, L. P., Andreenkov, O. V., Tabikhanova, L. E., Gubina, M. A., Labuda, D., and Schurr, T. G. (2008). Genetic variation in the enigmatic altaian kazakhs of South-Central russia: Insights into turkic population history. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 136(3):278-293.
  • Phillips-Krawczak, C., Devor, E., Zlojutro, M., Moffat-Wilson, K., and Crawford, M. H. (2006). MtDNA variation in the Altai-Kizhi population of southern siberia: a synthesis of genetic variation. Human biology, 78(4):477-494.
  • Pilipenko, A. S., Molodin, V. I., and Romashchenko, A. G. (2012). Mitochondrial DNA of a late neolithic woman from kaminnaia cave (gorny altai). Russian Journal of Genetics: Applied Research, 2(3):214-221.
  • Starikovskaya, E. B., Sukernik, R. I., Derbeneva, O. A., Volodko, N. V., Ruiz-Pesini, E., Torroni, A., Brown, M. D., Lott, M. T., Hosseini, S. H., Huoponen, K., and Wallace, D. C. (2005). Mitochondrial DNA diversity in indigenous populations of the southern extent of siberia, and the origins of native american haplogroups. Annals of human genetics, 69(Pt 1):67-89.
  • Sukernik, R. I., Volodko, N. V., Mazunin, I. O., Eltsov, N. P., Dryomov, S. V., and Starikovskaya, E. B. (2012). Mitochondrial genome diversity in the tubalar, even, and ulchi: Contribution to prehistory of native siberians and their affinities to native americans. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 148(1):123-138.

Journals and Newsletters

  • American Journal of Human Genetics
  • Annals of Human Genetics
  • European Journal of Human Genetics
  • Family Tree DNA Newsletter: Facts & Genes
  • Family Tree DNA Newsletter: Facts & Genes Archives
  • Genome Research
  • Human Genetics
  • Journal of Genetic Genealogy
  • Society for Molecular Biology