Who Were the First Farmers?
This web page shows that the ancestors of northern Europeans, e.g., Celts, were the first farmers, and that they began to emigrate from the Fertile Crescent into Europe after the end of the last glaciation.
Balaresque et al. state: "The relative contributions to modern European populations of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers from the Near East have been intensely debated. Haplogroup R1b1b2 (R-M269) is the commonest European Y-chromosomal lineage, increasing in frequency from east to west, and carried by 110 million European men... The distribution of this lineage, the diversity within it, and estimates of its age all suggest that it spread with farming from the Near East. Taken with evidence on the origins of other lineages, this indicates that most European Y chromosomes descend from Near Eastern farmers... Previous studies suggested a Paleolithic origin, but here we show that the geographical distribution of its microsatellite diversity is best explained by spread from a single source in the Near East via Anatolia during the Neolithic ... in contrast, most maternal lineages descend from hunter-gatherers ..." i.e. most Europeans have Cro-Magnon mitochondrial DNA.
According to this Wikipedia article about haplogroup (HG) R1b1a2 (a.k.a. R-M269), "the distribution of R1b STR variance in Europe forms a cline from east to west, which is more consistent with an entry into Europe from Western Asia with the spread of farming... "The frequency is about 71% in Scotland, 70% in Spain and 60% in France. In south-eastern England the frequency of this clade is about 70%; in parts of the rest of north and western England, Spain, Portugal, Wales and Ireland, it is as high as 90%; and in parts of north-western Ireland it reaches 98%."
Experts disagree on the correct interpretation of some archaeological and genetic, etc. evidence. All of the statements below about Genetic Anthropology and the ancestors of Celts from the time they left Africa are hypothetical and could be phrased as questions. Diana Gale Matthiesen wrote: "Everything is true to one degree or another, and the more evidence you can gather, the more confidence you can have that you are nearer to 'getting it right'." To 'get it right' is our own responsibility. We may help each other to do so by expressing our opinions via the Stewart DNA Forum for members of this family.
Despite the efforts of the Egyptian government to keep his test results secret, Swiss scientists who work at iGENEA (FTDNA's European affiliate) recently revealed that the Hamitic Pharaoh Tutankhamun (~1333 BC) belongs to Celtic HG R1b1a2. Why have the governments of Egypt, Israel and other Fertile Crescent states denied foreign experts' requests to test the DNA of ancient remains from their grave sites, deep in their unoxygenated territorial waters, and even scattered about their roadsides? China once prevented foreign experts from studying the four thousand year old, swastika tatooed, red haired R1a (Y-DNA) mummies of Xinjiang (blond natives still live there). The US government prevented scientists from studying Kennewick Man for nine years. Should scientific evidence of genocides that occurred thousands of years ago, or the history of any people be kept secret?
About 99.9% of the people painted on the walls of ancient Egyptian tombs and the current population of Egypt look nothing like most of the people shown in this PBS video, i.e., Mugabe and Semites. Egyptologist Zahi Hawass has always maintained that "Tutankhamun was not black, and the portrayal of ancient Egyptian civilization as black has no element of truth to it." If this statement implies that Hawass knows to which clades ancient Egyptians belong, why has he not told us?
The skin color in the image above indicates an Egyptian man. Fair skin would indicate a woman and black skin a non-Negroid Ethiopian.
In his "Atlas of African History", Colin McEvedy wrote: "the most important happening in African history was probably the outpouring of Negro tribes across the center of the continent from their original eastern limit in the Cameroon Mountains through the Zaire Basin to the headwaters of the White Nile, opening up equatorial Africa into E. Africa about two thousand years ago." People of Negro ancestry did not begin to emigrate from the coastal rain forests of south western Africa and to conquer the rest of Africa, etc. until about 2,000 years ago.
The mutation that causes blue eyes may have occurred before the Y-haplogroup R1b1 and I ancestors of northern Europeans left Africa. According to Danish geneticist Hans Eiberg, "the mutations responsible for the blue eye color most likely originate from the Near East area or northwest part of the Black Sea region, where the great agriculture migration to the northern part of Europe took place in the Neolithic periods about 6–10,000 years ago." Are blue eyes and European haplogroups less common in the Near East now because of ethnic cleansing?
The Egyptologist Flinders Petrie and Assyriologist Archibald Henry Sayce analysed Egyptian illustrations of what they identified as Amorites (Amurru) depicted as "white skinned, blue eyed, fair haired". According to Sayce (1889):
The Amorites... were a tall, handsome people, with white skins, blue eyes and reddish hair, all the characteristics, in fact, of the white race.Sayce further discovered a painting in a tomb (No. 34) at Thebes, belonging to the Eighteenth Dynasty which illustrates an Amorite chief with "white skin and red-brown hair". Henry George Tomkins (1897) an Exeter clergyman and member of the Royal Archaeological Institute also wrote the Amorites were blue eyed and fair haired. Easton's Bible Dictionary also contains an entry stating the Amorites are "represented on the Egyptian monuments with fair skins, light hair, blue eyes, aquiline noses, and pointed beards. The Encyclopædia Britannica, 13th ed., vol. 1, 1929, also contained a physical description of the Amorites from Egyptian illustrations:
Egyptian illustrations of the New Kingdom show the Palestinian Amorites to have been a race much more like the Northern Europeans than the Semites; long-headed, with blue eyes, straight noses and thin lips.Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Amorite&oldid=470188329#Physical_appearance
Wikipedia removed the above quote about the Physical appearance of the Amorites from the article at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amorite. Has genetic evidence of the true origins of the R1b1 population of Europe put the geo-political, etc. agendas of Wikipedia's historical revisionists, deniers, social engineers and censors at stake? Must our minds and actions be poisoned by a belief that sacred myths and the "legal" versions of history that we have been force-fed are truth? Let's think for ourselves, not what others think or want us to think. May sanity and the truth prevail, and this web page help people to find it. No secular or religious lie has ever benefited mankind.
How Neolithic Civilization Began
The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) made the Sahel less hospitable. Some R1b1 families survived by walking across the vast Sahara via the Nile. They remained in the game poor forests of the arid Levant because less baren parts of Eurasia had already been over-populated by territorial hunter gatherers and herdsmen.
The Kebaran culture was begun about 18,000 BC (not long after the R1b1 mutation occurred), possibly by R1b1 hunter-gatherer refugees from drought stricken Central Africa (e.g., Chad) whose children were so hungry that their mothers painstakingly harvested by hand the seeds of grasses, e.g., barley and wheat, that grew wild in the Fertile crescent. Seeing seeds they had eaten sprout from dung may have inspired them to start planting crops.
Farmers could not settle on the grassy steppes of Central Asia and compete with savages like Ghengis Khan until they had better weapons. Farmers were safer in forests and other areas that herdsmen avoid (cattle starve in a forest).
The land and investments of farmers must be secure in order for them to grow crops of wheat and barley for their hungry children to eat. Their civilization could not have begun or survived in an area dominated by herdsmen, e.g., Central Asia and the Arabian pennisula. Farmers would rather adopt a nomadic lifestyle than to allow their families to be regularly raided, robbed, raped, murdered and terrorized by herdsmen on horseback.
Each Sahelian patrilineal clan, clade or HG settled in a different part of the forests of Lebanon, lived in relative peace within the secure boundaries of its own independent territory, and became one of about thirteen independent nations that spoke its own version of the Indo-Hittite language.
The last glaciation made northern Europe uninhabitable. Some R1b1 farmers adopted a hunter gatherer lifestyle and began to spread via demic diffusion into the forests of northern Europe about ten KYA (Thousand Years Ago). After its part of the Fertile Crescent was conquered by herdsmen each civilized nation, e.g., the Celts, settled in a different part of western Eurasia, e.g., southern Europe.
The image above shows the diaspora of R1b1 farmers and the location of each branch of the Indo-European language. Farmers fled northwards from the Fertile Crescent and settled in western Eurasia (the LGM had depopulated most of it). They would have died if they had fled into the vast deserts of Africa and Arabia to the south.
The "back migration" hypotheses is not the only possible explanation for why the Ouldeme (95.5% R1b+) and Hausa are indigenous to sub-Saharan Africa. "The second hypothesis, an African origin of the M9 superclade that includes haplotype 117, would imply a subsequent impressive extinction of derivative lineages in sub-Saharan Africa, since no other haplotypes carrying the M9 mutation (haplogroups VII–X) have been observed in this region (the only exception being represented by a few haplotype 109 chromosomes found in the Fulbe from Cameroon)."
Stadials, the last hunter gatherer population to leave Africa. , e.g., the LGM, erased evidence of the Sahelian origins of all major Eurasian haplogroups except R
Scroll to the top if you want to read Column # 2 ====>
Linguistic evidence shows that farmers who spoke Indo-European languages had an aristocracy and priests, and lived in an environment like pre-historic Palestine, where farmers had stone and metal tools, dogs, ducks, geese, goats, pigs and later horses, plowed with oxen, and cultivated grains like barley, wheat, oats, etc. (which grew wild there).
The places where ancient Egypt, Mitanni, Hatti and Kassite Babylonia used to be are linquistically, religiously, and demographically different from what they once were.
The Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype (M269, R1b1a2) is still frequent in southwest Asia. If Hyksos, etc. herdsmen from the Arabian subcontinent had not routed, enslaved, exterminated and supplanted so much of its indigenous population, would the nations of the Fertile Crescent still have Indo-European religions, speak Indo-Hittite languages and look more like the Irish (81.5% R1b) and Scots (77.1% R1b, 11.2% I)?
"Historically nomadic herder lifestyles have led to warrior-based cultures that have made them fearsome enemies of settled people." "Some nomadic peoples, especially herders, may also move to raid settled communities ..." "This lifestyle ... is possibly associated with the appearance of Semitic languages in the region of the Ancient Near East." "The nomadic lifestyle was well suited to warfare, and the steppe horse riders became some of the most militarily potent peoples in the world".
According to the Jewish historian Josephus and the Judeo-Christian Bible, hundreds of thousands of Hebrew nomads from the Sumerian city of Ur of the Chaldees were expelled from Egypt by Ahmose I (died ~1557 BC). These Hebrew shepherds conquered the Jebusite Amorites of Jerusalem about 1000 BC. "The land of the Aryans" (a.k.a. Iran) conquered Babylon and allowed Hebrews to return to Jerusalem circa 538 BC.
Hyksos herdsmen may have looked like the current population of the Fertile Crescent, e.g., Yemenite (82.3% J and 16.2% E1b1b) and Israeli Arabs (55.2% J, 20.3% E1b1b and 16.1% R & I). Semites emigrated from Africa to the southern Arabian peninsula by crossing the Red Sea according to Wells. Is their skin color darker because their ancestors evolved for so long in the forests of Ethiopia (see the map below)? Napoléon, Hitler and Einstein belonged to Y-haplogroup E1b1b.
HG J is found in greatest concentration in the Southwestern Arabian Peninsula.
The Unger's Bible Dictionary (1957) explanation of why Phoenicians are considered Semitic by anthropologists and ethnologists is that Phoenicians "must have succumbed to the pressure of racial and linguistic intermixture with Semites with the loss of their own ethnic predominance" because Canaan "was like a bridge between Egypt and great Semitic empires". Are the Amorites and other Hamitic farming nations of Canaan called Semitic despite genetic, biblical, etc. evidence to the contrary because their Indo-Hittite speaking ancestors had to adopt a Semitic written language?
The picture above from a 1350 BC seal shows gangly Fertile Crescent farmers with the physical characteristics of Northern Europeans, not those of Crô-Magnon hunter-gatherers and Semitic herdsmen. If you want more evidence, click on the picture and read the book from which it came. The oval in the sky symbolizes the moon, which regulated plantings. The cross represents the Sun, a Celtic symbol for Life and God (Abrahamic faiths repurposed Celtic holidays too, e.g., Easter).
Matrilineal Ancestors of the First Farmers
We inherit our mitochondrial (mtDNA) only from our matrilineal ancestors. "... the immigrant Neolithic component is likely to comprise less than one-quarter of the mtDNA pool of modern Europeans". The R1b1 farmers who contributed to the aforesaid "immigrant Neolithic component" belonged to mtDNA haplogroups J and T, etc. before herdsmen drove them from the Fertile Crescent into their present Indo-European homelands in Central Asia (e.g., the Pontic-Caspian steppe and Scythia). HG T is currently found with high concentrations in northwestern Europe, e.g., around the eastern Baltic Sea).
MtDNA haplogroups T and J descend from JT, pre-JT, R (89% of Europeans), N, L3, L1-6, and L, i.e., "Mitochondrial Eve". SNP mutations occurred in the matrilineal lineage of women who belong to MtDNA haplogroup T at an average rate of once every 20 or 25 thousand years if the mutation known as L occurred between 150–200 KY ago). At this rate the mutation called JT may have occurred about 40-50 KY ago. The mutation called T may have occurred 20-25 KY ago, during the LGM.
Droughts, starvation, marauding shepherds, etc. motivated fur or wool clad farmers to adopt a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and to immigrate from the Fertile Crescent into the abandoned forests of northern Europe after the Holocene began.
After it warmed up enough for farming, well armed and organized neolithic farmers also immigrated from the Fertile Crescent into southern Europe, where they took the land and women of the natives and began to cultivate farms near the Mediterranean Sea, e.g., in Ancient Greece. Their brown or black eyed descendants are more likely than Northern Europeans to have the heat conserving racial characteristics of Crô-Magnons and Neanderthals, e.g., squatty and hairier bodies, brachycephalic heads, and brown hair and olive skin that absorbs the heat of the sun and provides better camouflage in a forest.
According to Geno 2 and this PBS video, Southern Europeans ("the Mediterranean component"?) have more Neanderthal DNA than Northern Europeans, and the bulky Neanderthals had blue eyes and fair skin and hair. Should Northern Europeans therefore be less likely than Southern Europeans to have blue eyes? Does Spencer Wells know that the last Neanderthal died about 30 KY ago (before the mutation that causes blue eyes occurred)?
Northern Europeans have less Neanderthal DNA because their ancestors did not enter Europe until nearly 20 KY after the last Neanderthal died. Southern Europeans have more Neanderthal DNA because the LGM forced their Crô-Magnon and Neanderthal ancestors to immigrate to the Mediterranean coasts for warmth.
Stadials were periods of long-lasting drought that may have eliminated the food supply of some families and motivated them to leave the Sahel (possibly over 100 KY ago). These droughts may have wiped out African Y and mitochondrial haplogroups and derivative lineages that now exist only in Eurasia. Is the genetic diversity of the R1b1 clade so small compared to others because it was the last clade to experience one of these impressive extinctions, i.e., genetic bottlenecks?
The severest stadial occurred:
1) During the LGM, when the clades to which the first farmers belonged may have left the Sahel. During the LGM the Persian Gulf was above sea level, and permafrost extended to the northern coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
2) ~40 - 50 KY ago, when the founders of the Crô-Magnon race may have left the Sahel. Crô-Magnons migrated from Africa to Europe because the rest of Eurasia had already been over-populated by anatomically modern humans, and at a time when Europe's warmer climate made Neanderthals less competitive. Tools may show that Neanderthals survived in America after they died out in Europe.
3) ~70 KY ago, when the founders of the Mongoloid race may have left the Sahel.
4) After the end of the Eemian, when the founders of the Australoid race may have left the Sahel.
Why did the people who left the Sahel travel across the Sahara instead of south? The occupants of Africa's equatorial rain forests might have objected.
If the ancestors of Australoids left Africa first, why didn't they populate Europe? Neanderthals might have objected.
If the ancestors of Australoids left Africa first, why don't they live where the Mongoloid population lives today? Could the ancestors of the Mongoloids have taken the Australoids' land if the supervolcanic eruption at Lake Toba in Sumatra had not occurred an estimated 69,000 to 77,000 years ago?
"Haplogroup C4 (M347) is the most common haplogroup among indigenous Australians, and it has not been found outside of that continent."
"It is believed that the remnant Australoid populations in Southeast Asia were essentially replaced or assimilated by the southern Mongoloid migration (BELLWOOD 1985), whereas the major Australoid populations in Australia and New Guinea were relatively unaffected by the second migration (TURNER 1987). Assuming that these interpretations are correct, we anticipate that Southeast Asia may be a clinal zone between the Australoid (south and east) and Mongoloid (north and west) genotypes."
Column # 3 ====>
The aforesaid "royal Stewart" SNP named R-L745 descends from L744 L21, P312, L11, L51, L150, L23, M269 (WAMH), P297, P25, M343, M173, M207 (a.k.a. R, shown in the lower right corner of one of the images below), P, K, MNOPS, IJK, F (shown in the lower right corner of the "Out of Africa" phylogenetic tree below), CF, CT, BT, A2T (A1b), A1a-T, A (root, a.k.a. "Y-chromosomal Adam").
During the last hundred thousand year-long glacial period at least four severe desert expansions may have motivated a few determined CT+ families to abandon their beloved tribes and the Sahel, the region from which all pre-historic hunter-gatherers left Africa, e.g., by crossing the Sahara (a coast-to-coast desert that is larger than the USA) via the 4,000 mile long Nile river. Some of the y-haplogroup(s) to which their descendants belong may have died out in Africa. Others still exist both within and outside of Africa, e.g., R1b1 and T.
Africans that survived the months-long walk from the Sahel to the Mediterranean were probably capable of scouting Eurasia. Scouts seen on the territory of another race might be considered spies and killed or enslaved if caught (no nation had civilized itself yet). Those who left Africa during the Sahel's earlier stadials were more likely to discover Eurasia's best unoccupied or conquerable hunting grounds (and to fully populate them before refugees from stadials that occurred tens of thousands of years later could drive them out).
The image above shows that families of hunter-gatherers from Central Africa would reach fresh water and the forested areas of Lebanon more quickly by traveling north via the Nile river than east across Semitic territory, salt water and the Arabian desert.
Some of the R1b1 hunter-gatherers who left Africa during the stadial known as the LGM (the part of the last glacial period when the Sahel was at its coldest and driest) may have stayed in the Fertile Crescent because other habitable parts of Eurasia had been completely populated by other territorial hunter-gatherers tens of thousands of years earlier. If the forests of Lebanon were too small to sustain hunter-gatherers and not grassy enough to sustain the herds of Harifian pastoralists, they may have been vacant when the ancestors of R1b1 farmers settled there ~18 KY ago.
Some of the aforesaid R1b1 hunter-gatherers may have bypassed the Mongoloid population of East Asia and crossed the Bering Strait. If a meteorite storm had not killed so many R1b1 native Americans about 12,900 years ago could Mongoloid hunter-gatherers have driven them eastwards about 9 KY ago?
Is R the only Y-haplogroup that has been indigenous to every continent except Australia for almost 20 KY?
Scientists are still trying to interpret some of the evidence, e.g., FTDNA's Chief Scientist, "Dr. Michael Hammer at the University of Arizona reanalyzed the haplogroup A tree and root with the new information available, and his new ages are even more amazing. Cruciani’s A1b/A0 sample is now at 200,000 years old and A00 is at 338,000, with a 98% confidence level... The A00 participant descends from a former slave family in South Carolina."
Why did Spencer Wells et al. proclaim for so long and so loudly that the Y-MRCA of all mankind lived only 50 KY ago despite the evidence that some people are not kissing cousins? Are some people amazed by Hammer's more realistic estimates because the owners of the mass media conglomerates over publicized politically correct opinions, timelines and theories that are inaccurate, misleading, biased and inconsistent?
Wells now claims that the ancestors of ALL Eurasian races left Africa by crossing the Red Sea at the same time "more than 60,000 years ago" (contrary to the multiple dispersal model).
Click on the image above for good explanations of the locations, etc. of the clades listed. M9 and M207 (HG R) are shown in the lower right part of the image above. More of these clades might still exist in the Sahel if stadials and bad luck, etc. had not wiped them out.
Y-haplogroup R is shown in the lower right part of the haplotree below. It shows older and newer estimates of how long ago HG R, etc. mutations may have occurred. Better estimates will be available after academic papers in the works are published.
Click here for a forum about Genetic Genealogy, etc.
Did Celts Build Stonehedge?
"Brittany stands out in the distribution of menhirs by virtue of both the density of monuments and the diversity of types. The largest surviving menhir in the world is located in Locmariaquer, Brittany, and is known as the Grand Menhir Brisé (Great Broken Menhir). Once nearly 20 meters high, today, it lies fractured into four pieces, but would have weighed near 330 tons when intact. It is placed third after the Thunder Stone in St. Petersburg and the Western Stone in the Western Wall as the heaviest object moved by humans without powered machinery."
Dolmens and menhirs (French, from Middle Breton: men, stone + hir, long) are the cultural signatures of Celts. They are found mostly in the parts of north western Europe where Celts lived. The largest concentrations of these monuments outside of Europe are in Israel, Syria and Western Jordan (where they and possibly bones that contain the DNA of Celts are being deliberately destroyed according to this video).
Herdsmen started to prey upon farmers soon after they began to produce food, etc. and eventually conquered Mesopotamia and the rest of civilizaton in the Fertile Crescent. The terrified farmers who escaped from them with their lives brought to the forests of southern Europe their seeds, domesticated animals, knowledge of how to clear farmland, dig dirt, grow food, make leather ropes, and the other simple technologies that their ancestors had used to build the huge stone monuments of the Fertile Crescent.
Did European Celts erect menhirs in order to honor their ancestors and to carry on their Fertile Crescent religions, traditions and science, and so that their descendants and the world would never forget whence their civilization came? The small Crô-Magnon hunter gatherer population that survived the LGM for about ten thousand years in southern Europe had never seen anything like it.
The Stonehedge experts shown in this PBS video wonder how neolithic farmers moved megaliths that weighed hundreds of tons for such great distances. Some thought that its builders slid them over logs. None mentioned the common sense solution of moving menhirs by rolling them sideways. NASA's engineers could have told them that a menhir will roll sideways downhill like a wheel if pushed hard enough, possibly with the help of a lever.
Were the huge stones of the Fertile Crescent and northern Africa rolled to their destinations? If braided leather ropes were wrapped around it, teams of oxen and/or men could pull even a rectangular menhir up a slope or to the top of a narrow ramp where it could be rotated 90 degrees and its base pivoted into a hole below the end of the ramp. Menhirs could have been rolled over a couple of rails made from the trunks of trees that had to be cleared from their path. Rails placed close together near the center of gravity of a menhir would stabilize it and make changing its direction and wrapping heavy ropes around and around both of its ends easier. Menhirs, etc. could be squared up for building purposes at their final destinations.
The picture above shows how leather ropes could be wrapped around a menhir so that a couple teams of oxen and/or men could roll it over a rail made of tree trunks.
Did the ancestors of Celtic farmers erect menhirs before they left the Sahel? Since Neolithic times, the climate of North Africa has become drier. A reminder of the desertification of the area is provided by megalithic remains, which occur in a great variety of forms and in vast numbers in presently arid and uninhabitable wastelands: cairns (kerkour), dolmens and circles like Stonehenge, underground cells excavated in rock, barrows topped with huge slabs, and step pyramid-like mounds".
Did Celts' Sahelian ancestors make undomesticated animals, e.g., elephants and deer, pull loads, e.g., as the Sami and circuses have?
Column # 4 ====>
Celtic Physical Characteristics
The ancestral lineages of any species are found at different frequencies in different populations. Some are specific to a certain region while others are more widespread. Being aware of the mitochondrial and Y haplogroups to which people of your ancestry belong and what their physical, etc. characteristics are makes it possible for you to discover where their descendants are found today, and to understand their evolutionary history and geographic origins.
There is no evidence that the HG R1b1 and HG I ancestors of Northern Europeans ever had dark colored skin. Geno 2.0's web pages imply that they did (and that Neanderthals had blue eyes and fair skin), even though the "experts" have no evidence except their own fallible common sense, imaginations and social agendas.
Compared to most of mankind, Scots and the other HG I and R1b1 populations of northern Europe are the least cold adapted. Their ancestors evolved more heat reflective and heat dissipating physical characteristics (e.g., fair and pinkish skins, more gangly and less hairy bodies, dolichocephalic heads and hair as blond as a lion's) because they left the rain forest to hunt for protein in the savannah, probably after the end of the glacial period that preceded the Eemian.
The noses, teeth, hair, skin, skeletal characteristics, etc. of northern Europeans are better adapted to the lifestyle of a hunter-gatherer in the hot, dry, and sunny Sahel than those of other races. They are the most heat-adapted because their ancestors were the last hunter-gatherers to leave Africa, and evolved in sunny grasslands for scores of thousands of years longer than those of any other Eurasian race. Northern Europeans would be as cold adapted as other Eurasian races if their ancestors had evolved in Ice Age Eurasia for as long, and as black as Pygmies if their ancestors had lived in as dark a forest for as long. The HG R1b1 population has the least genetic diversity because it survived the longest in the periodically genocidal climate of the Sahel. It would not have the physical characteristics that it has if it had evolved elsewhere.
Prey that eats grass starves in a forest. Daring people who craved that source of protein left the relative safety of the forest. People who were intelligent enough to communicate verbally and who had fair skins were more likely to survive outside the forest. Those that lived in the Sahel to the north of Africa's equatorial rainforest eventually evolved into all of the prehistoric races that left Africa.
Fair skin and hair is better camouflage in the Sahel. Dark skin is better camouflage in a forest. The mutations that cause Pygmies, etc. to have dark colored skin would not have happened otherwise. Their ancestors might have evolved to be as fair and large as Celts if they had been big game hunters and competed with large predators in the Sahel for over 100 KY.
Races that were poorly camouflaged under the thick canopies of a forest, or in the sunny Sahel, would starve or be killed by predators more quickly than by skin cancer. People who have healthier foods and immune systems, more active lifestyles, less toxic environments, etc. are less likely to develop skin cancer anyway.
The hair of lions and Black panthers would be the same color if the mutations that cause heat absorbing black hair were as advantageous in the relatively treeless and sunny Sahel as they are in a dark forest.
Few animals have a black skin underneath a coat of hair or feathers. Homo sapiens sapiens is no exception. Long, warm body hair helped forest dwellers to survive during the cold humid Middle Pleistocene glaciations. It provided them with all of the camouflage that they needed in a dark forest except on the hairless parts of their bodies. The mutations that cause people to have shorter body hair than Bonobos occurred during the sweltering Eemian interglacial period about 130 KY ago.
"The rainforest canopy cut off almost all the ultraviolet light and prevented it from reaching the forest floor". In other words, Pygmies and every other race that has evolved since the Eemian under thick forest canopies (even in Europe) for tens of thousands of years has been exposed to less sunlight than Celtic farmers. Should Pygmies therefore have the fairest skins that supposedly soak up the most sunlight and produce the most vitamin D? No secular theory is less sound and more widely believed even by scientists than this explanation for why Celts and Pygmies do not have the same skin color.
Do you see any pink skin on the Bonobo shown in the picture below? Have you seen feet with soles as pale on the blackest people? Parts of the body where camouflage is not needed are not black. Have you seen backs and chests that are almost as hairy as this Bonobo's on the Riviera? Hairy bodies helped Crô-Magnon hunter-gatherers survive the LGM in southern Europe. That northern Europeans have so little body hair shows that their ancestors survived the LGM in the Sahel and the Fertile Crescent (not in northern Eurasia).
Bonobos need dark skin for camouflage only on the hairless parts of their bodies. Their bodies are fairer than the bodies of Pygmies and Bantus because their longer body hair provides all the camouflage they need. All three subspecies evolved for over 100 KY in the same equatorial rain forest.
This topic and others explained on this web page show that some conventional opinions are nonsense. The more often politically correct propaganda and lies are repeated, particularly by the media conglomerates, the less anyone will dare to refute them, and the more likely children and the adults they become will believe them, and shun or censor those who disagree.
Survival of the Fitest?
A significant part of Europe was once Celtic. Only six Celtic nations, e.g., Wales, have survived. Some want their promised land back. The more compassionate, civilized, trusting and realistic an ethnic group is, the more prosperous and scientifically and technologically advanced (and the less capable of competeing with imperialists, exploiters, racists and genocidal savages) it is likely to be.
"... evolution produces new species through splitting ancestral populations of organisms into new groups that cannot or will not interbreed." Natural selection and indiscriminate breeding enhances the survival instincts of ANY subspecies and makes it more competitive. Only artificial selection and the selective breeding of plants and animals, e.g., dogs, can create a new subspecies that is more beneficial and less dangerous to people (and usually less intelligent).
The statistics of the Federal and other governments show that the crime rates of the descendants of the world's first farmers are comparatively low and that their neighborhoods are usually safer. Otherwise their ancestors could not have created the first civilization long before current forms of government, religious and secular media, schools and other methods of social engineering and control existed. High rates of crime undermine civilization by making it less prosperous and therefore less scientifically and technologically advanced (and less attractive to immigrants from the third world therefore).
By 11,000 BC the Natufian descendants of Sahelians had domesticated many of the plants and animals upon which the survival of civlization depends, and possibly their own gene pool by removing criminals from it.
Geno 2.0 claims that only a "tiny fraction of the total genome" sets our bodies apart from those of other animals. Which part of it made it possible for Celts to become a relatively compassionate, virtuous, law-abiding, secure, civilized and beautiful nation that enjoys a standard of living that is high enough to attract immigrants from the third world?
Click here to read a different theory about the origins of HG I.
The following statements of Spencer Wells and Geno 2 contradict those of Balaresque, etc. above: "This reference population is based on samples collected from populations in the United Kingdom. The dominant 50% Northern European component likely reflects the earliest settlers in Europe, hunter-gatherers who arrived there more than 35,000 years ago. The 33% Mediterranean and 17% Southwest Asian percentages arrived later, with the spread of agriculture from the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, over the past 10,000 years."
The use of euphemisms and mild, indirect, vague and confusing geographic terms as synonyms for races and haplogroups in the paragraph above is confusing and obfuscates the evidence.
1) "Northern European" refer to Celts, Germans, Slavs, etc.?
2) "Mediterranean" refer to Southern Europeans?
3) "Southwest Asian" refer to Semites?
4) "African" refer to Pygmies, Negroes, Hamites, Bushmen, San, Egyptians, etc.?
Are more specific and less confusing words too harsh, blunt, offensive, racist and easily understood for the brainwashed general public to tolerate?
The above statements of Wells and Geno 2 give the false impression that the patrilineal ancestors of Celts did not come from the Fertile Crescent, that they lived in Europe before the LGM, and that other races brought Neolithic civilization to Europe. Spencer Wells is not the first "expert" that has helped the media conglomerates to manipulate public opinion by broadcasting nonsense that promotes the social agendas of their owners.
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