Arms of the Great Steward until 1371
The Royal House of Stewart resided at Stirling, Linlithgow, Falkland, etc., and was founded by Robert II (2 March 1316 19 April 1390). He was the great-great-grandson of Justiciary Walter fitz Alan STEWART (~1198-1246), the third High Steward of Scotland and the first member of this family to use the surname Stewart (Stiubhard in Gaelic, Senescalli in Latin). King James I of England (1566 – 1625) and his descendants belong to a cadet branch of this aristocratic family line, house or dynasty (the sixth of nine enthroned in England since 927 AD).
After Robert II's death his third son Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany (c. 1340–1420) ruled Scotland. The Duke's son Murdoch Stewart governed Scotland until his first cousin King James I of Scotland was ransomed. James I had Murdoch and most of his sons beheaded on 24 May 1425. Murdoch's youngest son and only surviving heir James Mor Stewart fled to Antrim, County Antrim, Northern Ireland. Murdoch's descendant Andrew Stuart, 1st Baron Castle Stuart of Stewartstown, County Tyrone was one of the chief undertakers in the Ulster Plantation that brought Presbyterians to Ireland during the 1600s.
All of Walter's descendants have SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) R-L745, a deletion that can not back mutate. This mutation is "... only seen in direct descendants of the Stewart dynasty, kings and queens who ruled first Scotland and then Great Britain and Ireland between 1371 and 1701" according to Dr. Jim Wilson of ScotlandsDNA and BritainsDNA. All men who test positive for SNP R-L744 and/or L745 and/or L746 descend from the High Stewards. FTDNA's SNP tests cost only $39 each.
The Duke of Buccleuch and about 30 members of this project tested positive for R-L745. A duke (e.g. 39568) is a nobleman with the highest hereditary rank, especially a man of the highest grade of the peerage in Great Britain. The Dukes of Richmond, Grafton, St. Albans and Buccleuch (the largest private landowner in the UK) are descendants of King Charles II of England. Some of them are officers of the Royal Stuart Society. Click here to read about its events, e.g., a free public lecture about James IV on 30th October, 2013.
The aforesaid dukes and about 20% of the members of this patrilineal family do not have the surname Stewart, possibly because their patrilineal ancestors chose a different surname over 800 years ago, or because of a non-paternity event (NPE), e.g., infidelity, illegitimacy or a hidden adoption. "... on average only 50% of individuals sharing a unique surname will have inherited the original Y chromosome of the founding ancestor..." (Northern European genepools have lower than average rates of NPE and crime, e.g, rape).
According to genealogies and DNA tests, about sixteen percent of all Scots who have the occupational surname Stewart (or a variation thereof) descend from Walter. So do all of those whose test results are listed in the bright yellow colored subgroups of this project.
Walter and his five known sons are patrilineal descendants of the lord of Oswestry in Shropshire and of Alan (a crusader in 1097), the hereditary Seneschal of the Bishops de Dol de Bretagne. "Alan, the Dapifer of Dol in Brittany, was of Celtic extraction. Brittany was a separate Celtic country founded by Welsh, Cornish and probably Strathclyde immigrants who settled there in the early IIIrd, IVth and Vth centuries. Alan's family is said to have been a cadet branch to the Dukes of Brittany who were kings two centuries earlier. Hence, while Alan's descendants were followers of William the Conqueror, they were not of Norman extraction."
Some of Alan's patrilineal ancestors may have belonged to the Celtic tribe known as Dumnonii, and fled to Armorica after polytheistic Germans, a.k.a. the English, invaded their homeland (now called England). If Roman imperialists had not disarmed the British, they might have defeated the Anglo-Saxons. According to an article by Alistair Moffat in the 27 December 2011 issue of the Scotsman, "It may well be, on the evidence of DNA, that the Stewart dynasty of Scotland and of Great Britain and Ireland actually originated in the south or south-west of England..." If Allan's pagan ancestors lived in that part of Britain some of them may have helped to build Stonehedge about 5000 years ago.
Click here if you want to read more historical and anthropological information about the Celtic ancestors of this Stewart family.
- You may order DNA tests and upgrades ONLINE 24/7, or by telephoning 713-868-1438 Monday - Friday, 9A-6PM EST, 8A-5PM CST. You will be thankful that you chose FTDNA after you talk to the caring and knowledgeable employees who answer FTDNA's telephones.
- Genealogists who test their DNA are less likely to waste their time and money researching ancestors who are not their own, and in whom none of their relatives are interested.
- If you make your test results public your purchases benefit all members of this family, not just yourself. No member or administrator of this project benefits financially.
- FTDNA allows you to join, leave, and be part of multiple projects at the same time, without any additional testing or cost, and without the permission of an administrator of this project.
- If you want to join this project please click on the Join Request link in the blue header bar at the top of this web page and log in. Click on the same link if you want to order your first DNA test. If you do not join this or another surname project before ordering you may be charged FTDNA's regular prices at http://www.familytreedna.com/products.aspx.
- Our test results are useless unless we can compare them. Since FTDNA has a larger Y-DNA database than all of the other genetic genealogy testing companies combined, its customers can compare their test results to those of the most people. Paying one dime to any other company for a Y-STR (Short Tandem Repeat) test for genealogical purposes may be a waste of time, e.g., www.genetree.com is being discontinued as of January 1, 2013. Click here if you want to switch from another company to FTDNA.
- FTDNA created this phylogenetic project especially for descendants of the High Stewards of Scotland on October 29, 2010. The more of them join it the better researchers can help them to achieve their genealogical goals. The test results of members of this family who do not belong to this project may be ignored by researchers (one wrote: "it is a real pain to splice together data from several different projects"). This project's test result pages also facilitate research by loading faster than those of larger projects for families who have nothing in common but the surname Stewart.
- You may be asked to leave this project unless your matches include descendants of the High Stewards of Scotland, or unless you test positive for SNP R-L745 (a.k.a. S463), L744 (a.k.a. S388), L746, or DF41. Anyone who tests positive for L745 either descends from Walter or from one of his close relatives, i.e., from the House of Stewart. All members of this family and their closest non-Stewart kinfolk test positive for DF41.
- FTDNA makes it possible for customers with similar test results to exchange genealogical, etc. information via email. Project administrators and Ysearch may help people to contact each other even if their test results do not match. Customers need not reveal the names, addresses or any other personal information about the person whose DNA was used for a test unless they choose to do so (DNA testing may be illegal in some countries). Read FTDNA's Frequently Asked Questions web page for more information about Privacy, etc.
- You may find the test results of one of your mother's male cousins if he allows FTDNA to display the name, location, dates, etc. of his Most Distant Known Patrilineal Ancestor (y-MDKA) via an FTDNA project for his surname. E.g., if your mother descends from a Michael MARTIN who lived in SC, you may find his genetic signature by searching for his name via FTDNA's Martin test results web page. Some of his matches may be genealogists who traced your Martin ancestors back a thousand years! You may be able to contact your Martin cousins via Ysearch, or via the Martin project administrator (a donation to her General Fund may help).
- To see if your test results have been updated, you may have to "RELOAD" or "REFRESH" (F5) a web page (be patient when loading large tables).
- Click on the images or hyperlinks in quoted text at this web site if you want to see their sources, etc. Please report any nonfunctional links to an administrator and tell us how we can serve you better. This web site has been under construction since it was created (please visit often).
Scroll down to view trees that show how this Stewart family is related to all others, or right to the next column ====>
Welcome to FTDNA's Phylogenetic Project for patrilineal descendants of the
High STEWARDS of Scotland
Shopping for a DNA Test
If your y-STR test results and the Modal Haplotype of this Stewart family are an exact match (and your surname is not Stewart or a version thereof), the chances that you belong to it are about:
- 2% at the $49 Y-DNA12 test level
- 50% at the Y-DNA25 test level
- 85% at the $169 Y-DNA37 test level
- 100% at the Y-DNA111 and $268 Y-DNA67 test levels.
The chances are less if the match is less close. All prices are subject to change. Some tests cost less during sales, and if you join a project before ordering. You may have to wait longer for your test results during a sale.
The more STR markers we can compare the better we can determine how closely people are related, and to which branch of this family they belong. "I have found the 111-marker test absolutely invaluable for sorting out subfamilies within a single large family group of known surname" Belinda Dettmann
FTDNA recommends "that those who have the Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype (WAMH) use the Y67 or Y111 test to confirm genealogical relationships unless they have a rare surname." Some advantages of testing 67 markers over testing 37 are:
- By using additional markers groups of related participants have a better chance of finding mutations which identify sub-branches of their family.
- People whose test results match closely at the Y67 level, or who have the same terminal SNP (e.g., R-L745), know that they belong to the same genetic family even if they have different surnames.
- A Y67 test can further refine our estimate of how closely related two individuals are. See http://www.familytreedna.com/faq-markers.aspx
- "The Y111 test is intended for those who wish to refine the time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) calculation with a close or exact match and who wish to improve the confidence in a match." See https://www.familytreedna.com/faq/answers/default.aspx?faqid=9#330.aspx.
Whose DNA to test?
Y-chromosome DNA tests are the most informative genetic system for identifying ancestral lineages. They are for MALES only. Testing the DNA of an older generation (e.g., your father) may eliminate a recent mutation from comparisons. Test the DNA of your most distant genealogically proven patrilineal cousin too in order to determine if a mutation has occurred since your Most Recent Common Patrilineal Ancestor (Y-MRCA) lived. A woman may be able to test the DNA of her biological father, brother, patrilineal cousin, etc.
An autosomal test (e.g., Family Finder) may be taken by either a male or a female, and may identify hundreds of maternal and paternal cousins. If a Y-DNA test proves that an adoptee descends from the High Stewards of Scotland, an autosomal test may help him to identify some of his first, second, third, etc. Stewart cousins. The challenge is to figure out how distant cousins are related to you, e.g., via which gggGrandmother, etc. Your grandfather's Family Finder test will show paternal cousins and clues to the identity of ancestors who are more distantly related to you than your own FF test would.
The Genetic Genealogy Success Stories of the International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) explain how some people have benefited from Y-DNA, autosomal and other kinds of DNA tests.
Identifying Your Genetic Homeland
This is not an endorsement of a genealogical method or service.
"Since modern science can pinpoint a Genetic Homeland it can also be used to confirm it by DNA testing individuals from the pinpointed area."
According to guest speaker for Family Tree DNA Dr Tyrone Bowes, Ph.D, a person whose matches have different surnames may be able to use those surnames to "... pinpoint where one's direct male ancestor lived when he first picked his surname ... If your ancestors were in their Genetic Homeland 1000 years ago, his descendants (your distant relatives) are still living there even today; to confirm the paternal ancestral link with the identified area one simply has to recruit males living in that location for a Y-DNA test."
"Put very simply those surnames arose among a group of related males living in a very specific location, find out where those surnames originate and you'll reveal a common area of association..... literally revealing your paternal GENETIC HOMELAND". He explains how to do this in detail via an article called Using Y Chromosome DNA Testing to Pinpoint a Genetic Homeland in Ireland.
Where in Ireland is the surname STEWART Most Common? Click here to see where it was most common in Scotland in 1881, and here for the STUART spelling.
STR Test Results
Y67 tests measure the number of differences, or STR mutations, between two sets of results, i.e, their Genetic Distance (GD) from each other. The more closely related two members of this lineage are, the less GD between them there is likely to be. E.g. the GD between brothers 5987 and 16895 is 1@67 and 3@111, between fourth cousins 199984 and 143035 is 2@67 (about one mutation every six generations), and between the ducal descendants of three different sons of King Charles II (1630-1685) is 3@67.
FTDNA's list of your matches may not include all of your Stewart cousins. Your MyFTDNA web page provides you with the email addresses of your patrilineal cousins if their GD from you is no more that 7@67 (~10%). The GD between 5603 and 143035 is 11@67 (16.4%) and between some descendants of the High Stewards of Scotland may be as high as 14@67 (~20%).
Signature Marker Values
All descendants of the High Stewards of Scotland who have the surname Stewart and who belong to this project have the "genetic signature" Y-GATA-H4 = 10, DYF 406 S1 = 11 and DYS 565 = 11 so far.
Please carefully peruse Diana Gale Matthiesen's web page about "Signature Markers: What They Are and How to Use Them" if you want to help to determine to which branch of a lineage someone belongs.
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This Family's Modal Haplotype
The haplotype of a family's Y-MRCA is its Ancestral Signature or Ancestral Haplotype. If it can not be determined or deduced by testing his remains, it is assumed (perhaps wrongly) to be the mode of all of his tested descendants.
A Modal Haplotype is the most common result or value for each STR marker or allele tested in a group of results. The one and only mode at the Y67 level of the more than eighty patrilineal descendants of Walter who were tested by FTDNA is the same as the test results of 181994.
Descendants of Walter who belong to the same generation have the same relationship to him no matter what their GD from his assumed haplotype is. E.g., brothers 5987 and 16895 are as closely related to Walter as any other member of their generation, even though they have five off-modal marker values at the Y111 level, and the GD between them is 1@67.
FTDNA has never tested the DNA of a member of this 800 year old Stewart lineage whose GD from its mode is greater than 9@67 (about one mutation every 100 years). 5603 (L745+) and one or two of his cousins have a GD of 7@67 from its mode. Erwin's (42048) GD from it is also 7@67. That he tested negative for SNP DF41, a mutation that is estimated to have occurred two or three millennia ago, shows how distantly related to this Stewart family he is. GD usually indicates how closely people are related, but not always.
Mutation rates are not completely predictable. The GD between over 7% of the members of this family (e.g., 110059, 179069, 181994, 183344, 214547, 235915 and 272860) and its mode is 0@67 (zero mutations every 800 years). Some of them belong to different branches of this lineage according to the genealogical evidence. "... sharing the haplogroup modal values with a family is of virtually no significance beyond the fact that you're related somewhere back in time" (Matthiesen).
Non-Modal Marker Values
Marker values that are not a family's most common are non-modal (a.k.a off-modal). Non-modal marker values help to determine who belongs to which branches of a family. Members of this Stewart family who have no non-modal marker values at the Y67 level have some at the Y111 level. None have tested 0@111 from its mode yet.
The mode of all descendants of the High Stewards of Scotland has the values 14-15-17-17 for DYS464. The ducal descendants of King Charles II have only ONE off-modal marker value for DYS464 in common, 14-15-16-17. That some members of the Kintyre branch have this non-modal marker value and some do not have it indicates that this mutation reversed itself, or that it occurred more than once (DYS464 mutates faster than most markers).
Testing the Y-DNA of the first tester's most distant genealogically traced patrilineal cousin helps to determine which mutation(s) occurred after their Y-MRCA was born, to which branch of the High Stewards of Scotland they belong, and whether or not an adoption occurred. E.g., 143035 and his known fourth cousin 199984 have three "
branch" non-modal values in common: DYS459=9-9, DYS 449=30 and DYS 570=16. Their gggGrandfather Robert "Robin" STEWART (born ~1785) probably had all three of these mutations too. Any other descendant of the High Stewards who has all three of these mutations probably descends from Robin, or is closely related to him.
One (199984) of Robin's two tested gggGrandsons has CDY=36-37 and one (143035) has CDY=35-37 (this is one of the fastest mutating markers). Since CDY=36-37 is the modal value for all descendants of the High Stewards, Robin probably had that mutation too. If another descendant of Robin tests CDY=35-37 it would become a fourth branch marker (it would no longer be "private"). All descendants of Robin who have CDY=35-37 are probably closer kin to each other than they are to 199984. If CDY=35-37 is the only non-modal marker that 143035 has in common with another member of this Stewart family they are probably no closer kin to each other than they are to any other descendant of the High Stewards.
That 199984, 143035, 147822, 16895, and 5987 have TWO non-modal marker values (DYS 449=30 and DYS 570=16) in common is evidence that they belong to the same branch of this family (genealogical research may prove otherwise). Based on a comparison of their non-modal marker values using standard parameters, there is a 50% probability that their common ancestor was born no longer than 210 years ago (about 1800) and a 90% probability that he was born no longer than 480 years ago (about 1530).
Pages 37 and 38 of Alex Williamson's Y111 R-L21 phylogenetic tree show how some descendants of the High Stewards of Scotland MAY be related to each other. Pages 103 and 104 of his Y67 tree include haplogroups R-L744, L745, and the following subgroup:
- f_16895 Clancey R1b-P312>L21>DF13>DF41>L744>L745+ [41-744-Stu] USA
- f_5987 Clancey R1b-P312>L21>DF13>DF41>L744>L745+ [41-744-Stu] USA
- f_112839 Stewart zzL21suspect [41-744-Stu] Scotland
- f_199984 Stewart zzL21suspect [41-744-Stu] Ireland
- f_143035 Stewart R1b-P312>L21>DF13>DF41>L744>L745+ [41-744-Stu] Ireland
- f_147822 Stuart R1b-P312>L21>DF13>DF41>L744>L745+ [41-744-Stu] Scotland
Knowing that 143035 and 147822 belong to the same branch of this family may help them to identify their common ancestor. If DYS458=16 is a branch (i.e., non-private) marker value for 147822, it would be evidence that he and 143035 belong to different branches of this family (143035 has DYS458=17).
Since DYS570=16 is the only branch marker value that 147822, 199984, 143035, 16895, 5987 and 112839 have in common at the Y111 level, the man who first had the DYS 570=16 branch mutation probably descends from a man who had no non-modal marker values, and the man who first had the DYS 449=30 branch mutation must be a descendant of the man who first had the DYS 570=16 branch mutation.
DYS459=9-9, DYS449=30 and DYS570=16 are the only branch marker values that fourth cousins 199984 and 143035 have in common at the Y67 level. More may be found if 199984 upgrades to the Y111 level.
After you click on the image below and then on pushpins on the interactive map that SLOWLY loads, the surnames of the y-MDKAs of some DF41 Cousins of the High Stewards are displayed..
Why are so few Continental Europeans shown on this map?
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Armorial used by Stuart monarchs in England after 1603
SNP Test Results
The more descendants of the High Stewards order Big Y tests the more precisely all of them can be positioned on their phylogenetic tree ! STR markers are more useful for determining how recent generations of a family are related to each other within genealogical times. A SNP test is a reliable way for you to identify your more distant patrilineal cousins, ancestors and anthropological origins. SNP test results are sometimes better indicators of recent ancestry than STR test results, e.g. read about Erwin # 42048 above.
A SNP is a single mutation in one base pair. "These changes are rare. Once they happen, they seldom change back ..." STR marker values mutate forwards and backwards more frequently so they are less reliable and more ambiguous sources of information than SNPs.
We thank Dr. Thomas Krahn (6C3CZ & 64047 on page 3) for discovering SNPs R-L744 (A+), L746 (T+) and L745 (del+) via a Walk Through the Y (WTY) test of the DNA of the member of this Stewart family whose test results are displayed in David Reynolds' table where the L745 row and the 143035 column intersect. A WTY test of another member of this R-L745+ family MAY discover a SNP that helps to divide it into branches. 5603 is a good candidate for our next group funded WTY test because his GD from 143035 is 11@67 (83.6%) and 13@111 (88.3%). "Across the entire Y-chromosome DNA, a SNP occurs every one to two generations".
The mutation known as R-L744 probably occurred 800 or less years ago. ISOGG recently named this haplogroup (HG) R1b1a2a1a2c1i1. FTDNA still assigns people who test L744+ to haplogroup R1b1a2a1a1b4 (the YCC 2008 name for SNP R-L21).
According to the R1b-L21 tree shown at the bottom of this web page, SNPs L744, L745 & L746 are downsteam of DF41 (a mutation estimated to have occurred about 2300 years ago), DF13 and R-L21 (estimated to have occurred about 3500 years ago). More interesting estimates of when some SNP mutations occurred are shown at the bottom of some of Williamson's trees.
ScotlandsDNA states: "Your marker, S145/R-L21 is present in small but statistically significant numbers in Western France and Spain. One of its most interesting concentrations is in Brittany. Formerly known as Armorica, part of the Roman province of Gaul, this region changed its name to mean 'Little Britain'. This happened because of a migration, an exodus from Southern England of Romano-British people who fled the Anglo-Saxon invasions of the 5th and 6th centuries. These were almost certainly aristocrats, landowners and townspeople of means, those with the most to lose and the ability to flee. They brought their marker with them and outside of Britain, S145 is most common in Brittany, Little Britain."
SNP tests have revealed how some R-L21 families are related to each other. You can determine to which branch of L21 you belong by finding your terminal SNP, e.g., by ordering FTDNA's test for the terminal SNP of someone who matches you closely. If you test R-L21+ the friendly experts who participate in the R-L21 and DF41 Forums may tell you for which SNP (child of R-L21) to test next. FTDNA's Deep Clade test and the $199 Geno 2.0 test do not include SNPs below the R-L21 level that pertain to this Stewart family. For £170 (or $258) ScotlandsDNA helps people to identify the Y-haplogroup to which they belong via SNP tests that may include R-L745.
How to Order A SNP Test
You are not likely to test positive for SNPs R-L744, L745 and/or L746 unless:
- One of your close matches has already done so.
- Nearly all of your matches have the surname Stewart.
- Your GD from the mode of this Stewart family is no greater than 9@67.
If you want to order one or more SNP tests:
- Just go to your "myFTDNA" pages and click on "Order An Upgrade" in the upper right corner. Scroll down and click on Order an Advanced Test under the heading "Advanced Tests" (tests for recently discovered SNPs will eventually be added to FTDNA's Order Advanced SNP Test menu).
- On the next screen, click the drop-down menu on the "Test Type" box and choose "SNP". Then, in the "Marker" box, type the name of the SNP, e.g., L745. Click "Find". That SNP should come up, showing a $39 price. Click "Add". After you add all the SNPs you want to order, click on the little orange "Next" button hidden in the lower right corner and add shipping address, etc. information.
Members' SNP test results are posted on the Stuart family SNP web page and at the bottom of their "myFTDNA" Haplotree web pages.
If the administrators of other projects do not display their members' SNP test results, please ask them to read the article at this link.
Do Experts Ever Make Mistakes?
The International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) mistakenly listed SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) R-L745 as being a child of L744 because FTDNA reported on 11/29/2011 that Webb (75703) tested L744+ (positive) and L745- (negative).
A descendant of the High Stewards (143035) immediately realized that Webb's SNP and STR test results were inconsistent, and asked FTDNA to rerun Webb's SNP test. It took 143035 nearly two years to convince FTDNA to do so.
On Oct 14, 2013 GenebyGene's laboratory director Connie Bormans, Ph.D. wrote: "The data was reviewed and we reran the sample in question. The rerun showed the sample was L745+, and the results have been changed accordingly." Webb can now be certain that he descends from the High Stewards therefore.
FTDNA might have corrected its mistake two years earlier if anyone in the genetic genealogy community if 143035 had not been a voice crying alone in the wilderness.
143035 also spent nearly two years trying to convince Belinda (the co-administrator of the non-royal Stewart project at http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Stewart/default.aspx) that if 75703 lacked the R-L745 mutation he could not be a descendant of Alexander the fourth High Steward of Scotland. Belinda reassigned 75703 to a different subgroup of her Stewart project after DF41 cousin Larry WALKER (240201) agreed with 143035.
After he won his argument with Belinda 143035 tried one last time to convince FTDNA that 75703's SNP and STR test results were inconsistent.
FTDNA admitted its mistake about a month later, and Belinda reassigned 75703 to her "R1b Group Type 202: Ancient Stewarts: Probably descended from the line of Sir John of Bonkyl" subgroup.
Everyone else in the scientific and genetic genealogy communities who relied on FTDNA's lab mistake may have to revise their reports too.
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Banner of the Kings of Scotland and the Flag of Scotland
How Can We Help Each Other?
- "Be as descriptive, but brief, in your e-mail request as possible. Make the case on why you need to share information. The more detailed it is, the more likely you will receive a reply. The more vague it is, the less likely you will.
- If someone contacts you with a question you do not know the answer to, do not ignore the e-mail. Either reply that you do not know the answer, or if its a question related to the results and you need assistance to answer the question, contact Family Tree DNA's Customer Service.
- Do NOT send a bulk e-mail to all of your matches. While more tedious, you will receive a better response rate if you take the time to individually address each match separately. One reason for this is because some customers use the same e-mail address on multiple kits and if you do not address the name you are contacting, they have no way of knowing which kit you are contacting them about."
- Your matches and administrators may not be able to identify you or know what you are talking about unless your messages include your kit number and the URL of the web page or project that you want to discuss.
- Those who upgrade to the Y67 and Y111 levels and make their test results public benefit all members of our family, not just themselves.
- Diana Gale Matthiesen stated: "Genealogy is like a jigsaw puzzle... If everyone hides their piece of the puzzle, none of us will get anywhere." Please do not make your test results and the name, etc. of your earliest genealogically traced patrilineal ancestor private.
- A comparison of our pedigrees and DNA test results may help us to identify to which branch of this Stewart/Stuart family someone belongs even if he does not know the names of his biological parents. People with different surnames may be surprised to learn that they too are members of our historic Stewart family.
- Genetic matches who provide their pedigrees and the names of their y-MDKAs are more likely to find genealogical connections. If you want this Stewart family to have Pedigree and Forum web pages like those of the Ards Peninsula Families DNA Project please tell the administrators of this project.
- Help all Stewart and other genealogists to understand the benefits of genetic genealogy so that FTDNA's database will grow. Share your Stewart lineage and DNA success stories by participating in genealogical forums, e.g., at http://genforum.genealogy.com/stewart/ and http://boards.rootsweb.com/surnames.stewart/mb.ashx. Encourage members of other families and strangers to have their DNA tested too. The more people have their DNA tested and the more advanced the technology, etc. becomes, the easier it will be for us to find our kinfolk, and the better FTDNA may serve us.
- FTDNA will use all of the money that you donate to the General Fund of the Stuart project to pay for any test that you want done, e.g., of the DNA of a Stewart from the village from which your patrilineal ancestor came. The person for whose DNA test you paid may not remove his results from FTDNA's database or restrict access to them unless he repays you in full. This includes tests for which a group project paid. You may ask his local newspaper to advertise your offer and thereby encourage more interest in DNA testing.
- Join the Stewart DNA Forum that is exclusively for members of this family (regardless of their surnames and gender) if you want to read or write comments, post pictures, vote about how money in this family's General Fund is spent, elect project administrators, etc.
- Email an administrator of this project if you want more details about how to order and use your DNA sample collection kit.
- Having children is the best thing that we can do to help the House of Stewart to survive. Without new generations everything else that we and our ancestors have worked so hard to accomplish is in vain. The more a family or nation neglects its own interests and the care and proper education of its own children, the longer it will last. "We are merely the present-day custodians of our Ancestors' genes."
- Let's help each other to succeed, not fail.
This Stewart Project Is Unique.
This genetic genealogy project is a collaborative effort to answer genealogical questions using the results of DNA tests. Some of its goals are to:
- Recruit as many patrilineal descendants of the High Stewards of Scotland as possible, no matter what their surnames and geographic locations may be
- Help them to have their DNA tested for genealogical purposes by providing information and financial assistance.
- Use their test results and pedigrees to determine exactly how they are related to each other and to which branches of this lineage they belong
- Make their DNA test results more understandable and meaningful. The failure to do this is the most common complaint from the customers of DNA testing companies. FTDNA's eBook
I Have the Results of My Genetic Genealogy Test, Now What? may help.
- Serve their needs as a genetic family and to promote their interests, solidarity and pride in any way that we can.
We thank those who joined this project. The better our leaders are, the more successful our efforts will be. Please help us to choose the best. Volunteers, suggestions and criticism are welcome.
Click on a DF41 Tree below, then a 2nd click to enlarge it.
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Stewart Tartan and armorial used by Stuart monarchs in Scotland before 1603.
Reputed Lineage of the Stewart Monarchs of Scotland
- Alan was an hereditary Seneschal of the Bishops of Dol en Bretagne (crusader in 1097). The name Alan is an Anglicization of the Gaelic name Ó h-Ailín, meaning 'fair', 'handsome, noble, etc. Alain and Allen are variations.
- Flaald, Seneschal de Dol (d. between 1080 and 1106)
- Alan fitz Flaald (born 1070, died in 1114) m. Aveline de Hesdin. He was a knight in Norman service. Some of his patrilineal descendants held the title of Earls of Arundel until they died without a male heir in 1580. A Y-DNA test of this branch would help to determine when the R-L745 SNP mutation occurred.
- Walter fitz Alan (1106 - June 1177) was the 1st hereditary High Steward of Scotland (c1150-1177), m. Eochyna de Molle. He came to Scotland about 1136 and had extensive landholdings in the Borders and central Scotland. He was interred at Paisley Abbey (desecrated by a mob incited by John Knox, et alia). The name Walter comes from Old High German Walthari, containing the elements wald "rule" and hari "army, warrior".
- Alan fitz Walter (1140 – 1204) was the 2nd Great Steward of Scotland, took part in the Third Crusade and married Alesta.
- Walter STEWART of Dundonald, 3rd High Steward of Scotland (~1198-1246), was the first member of this family to use the surname Stewart.
- Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland (b. circa 1214, d. circa 1283), m Jean Macrory. The name Alexander comes from the Greek Aléxandros, meaning defender or protector of men.
- James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland (b. c 1243 - died 16 Jul 1309). The name James comes from the Hebrew Ya'aqov, the name of one of the first apostles. It was an uncommon name in Scotland in the 13th century, and not a traditional name in this Stewart family.
- Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland (b. 1296 - d. 9 Apr 1327) married Margorie Bruce, Princess of Scotland, daughter of Robert I Bruce, King of Scotland.
- Robert II Stewart, first monarch of the House of Stewart (b. 2 Mar 1316 - d. 19 Apr 1390) and father of the Duke of Albany (c.1340–1420). The name Robert is a Germanic given name, from Old High German Hruodberht "bright with glory" (a compound of hruod "fame, glory" and berht "bright").
- Robert III Stewart, King of Scotland (b. 1337 - d. 4 Apr 1406) was disabled. The English imprisoned his son James for eighteen years. Robert's younger brother Robert (Earl of Fife and later the first Duke of Albany) served as Regent in Scotland until he died. After James became king he accused the Albany Stewarts of treason and had most of them hanged.
- James I Stewart, King of Scotland (b. 25 Jul 1394 - murdered 21 Feb 1437) was held prisoner in the Tower of London
- James II Stewart, King of Scotland (b. 16 Oct 1430 - d. 3 Aug 1460 during siege of Roxburgh Castle)
- James III Stewart, King of Scotland (b. 10 Jul 1452 - d. 11 Jun 1488 at the Battle of Sauchieburn)
- James IV Stewart was born 17 Mar 1473. He began construction of the Palace of Holyroodhouse and died heroically during the disasterous Battle of Flodden Field 9 Sep 1513.
- James V Stewart, King of Scotland (b. 15 Apr 1512). He had many illegitimate children. He died 14 Dec 1542 from illness after the Battle of Solway Moss. His first wife was Madeleine de Valois. His second wife Marie de Guise (22 November 1515 – 11 June 1560) refused to marry Henry VIII of England because she wanted to keep her "little neck". She is the mother of Queen Mary Stuart. The name Mary is a form of the Hebrew name Miryam.
Signet Ring of Queen Mary Stuart
- Mary, Queen of Scotland and France (b. 7 Dec 1542 - d. 8 Feb 1587) was the only legitimate child of James V to survive him. Five-year-old Mary and two of her half-brothers were sent to France in order to avoid the "rough wooing" of Henry VIII. She spent the next thirteen years at the French court, mainly at Amboise, near Tours, where she adopted the Gallicised spelling Marie Stuart. She was vivacious, beautiful, clever, devoutly Catholic and is still venerated by the French. She returned to Scotland after her first husband King Francis II of France died. She married her half first cousin Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley (b. 7 December 1545). He was strangled to death after an explosion on 10 February 1567. Mary was blamed. She was unable to cope with the dangerous and complex religious and political situation in Scotland at the time. Although she tolerated the newly established Protestant ascendancy, she charged John Knox, says Dr. MacCrie, "with stirring up her subjects against her, and among other things, upbraied him with sedition", by reason of his treatise on women's government, entitled The First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women. Mary kept her illegitimate half-brother James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray (c. 1531 – 11 January 1570) as her chief advisor even though he was a leader of the Protestant faction. He rebelled, defeated her forces at the Battle of Langside (13 May 1568) and became Regent of Scotland after he forced her to flee to England. Mary sought the protection of her father's Protestant first cousin Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603), who was declared illegitimate. Elizabeth betrayed Mary's trust, accused her of treason, had her imprisoned and signed her death warrant. Were Elizabeth's trusted advisors afraid Mary would influence her 21-year old Presbyterian son to become a Catholic king?
Patrilineal lineage of the Stuart Monarchs of England
- Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland, b. circa 1214, d. circa 1283.
- John Stewart, of Bonkyl and Garlies, b. Abt 1245, killed 1298 at Battle Of Falkirk, buried at Falkirk Old Parish Church. The name John is from the Hebrew name Yôanan, or Jonathan, which means "Graced by Yahweh".
- Sir Alan Stewart of Dreghorn killed 1333 at Battle of Halidon Hill.
- Sir Alexander Stewart of Darnley, (d.1374).
- Sir Alexander Stewart of Darnley, (d.1404).
- Sir John Stewart of Darnley, 1st Lord of Concressault and 1st Lord of Aubigny, Count of Évreux (c. 1380-d.1429)
- Sir Alan Stuart, 7th of Darnley of Darnley, killed 1439 by Sir Thomas Boyd 4th of Kilmarnock because of a blood feud.
- Sir John Stuart, 1st Earl of Lennox, b. before 1430, d. 1495
- Matthew Stuart, 2nd Earl of Lennox, Bef. 5 May 1488, killed 9 September 1513 at Battle of Flodden. The name Matthew comes from Hebrew Matityahu.
- John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Lennox, b. 1492, murdered 1526
- Matthew Stuart, 4th Earl of Lennox, b. 1516, killed in 1571 during a raid on Sterling.
- Henry "Darnley" Stuart, b. 1545, murdered by James Hamilton of Finnart in 1567. The name Henry is Germanic and means "home ruler".
- James I Charles Stuart (b. 1566 - d. 1625) was crowned King of Scotland on 29 July 1567 and King of Great Britain on 25 July 1603, m. Anne Oldenburg, Princess of Denmark.
- Charles I Stuart (b. 1600 - beheaded 1649) m. Henriette Marie de Bourbon, Princesse de France. The name Charles is Germanic and means "free man".
- Charles II Stuart was born in 1630 and died Catholic on Feb. 6, 1685. His wife was childless. He acknowledged at least 12 illegitimate children.
- James II Stuart (1633 1701) was deposed in a Glorious Invasion that was paid for by rich bankers like Marrano Abraham Israel Suasso, a.k.a. "Baron d'Avernas le Gras" (the coffer in which William repaid the loan to Suasso is today on display in the Willet-Holthuisen Museum in Amsterdam), Pope Innocent XI (money-lending was his family's business), the world's main financial centre in Amsterdam, and other cabals that helped to create the largest empire in the history of the world and to win two World Wars in the name of democracy.
Timeline of Scottish Monarchs
Celtic Kingdoms of the British Isles
Book about the origins, etc. of the Stewarts of Appin
Video about the Scots-Irish based on Senator James WEBB's book, Born Fighting.
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- 55BC Julius Caesar landed in Britain and suppressed the religion of the ancient Celts.
- Semites (Haplogroup J) may have arrived in Britain during the Roman occupation. 1st and 2nd century AD Imperial authorities viewed Catholicism as Judaism, a protected religion (Roman persecution of Catholics is exaggerated).
- 54AD Claudius completely forbade Druid rites.
- 66AD rebellion in Judea - Jews temporarily lost protected status.
- 80AD The Roman general Julius Agricola invaded Scotland (a.k.a. Caledonia or Albion).
- 84AD Celtic tribes of Caledonia united under Calgacus but were defeated by the Romans.
- 121 - 129AD Roman Emperor Hadrian's coast-to-coast Wall was built in six years.
- 380 Theodosius I made Catholicism the official state religion of the Roman Empire and suppressed heresy and paganism.
- 409 The Roman occupation of Britain ended.
- 5th century - The Roman Empire collapsed. Polytheistic Anglo-Saxon Germans invaded Great Britain and dispossessed the British except where Celtic nations still exist, e.g., in Wales, etc. Many Bretons fled to Brittany.
- 646 Semitic Arabs (Haplogroup J) began their conquest of northern Africa and its indigenous Berbers.
- 686 Isle of Wight was the last part of England to succumb to Catholicism. Its inhabitants reverted to paganism after Wulfhere of Mercia converted them at sword point.
- 800 - 900s Vikings raided Scotland.
- 995 Olaf I of Norway forcibly Judeo-Christianised the Orkney Islanders.
- 1005 King Malcolm II ruled Scotland and defeated the Vikings at the Battle of Mortlach.
- 1034 - 1040 King Duncan I (killed in battle).
- 1040 - 1057 Gaelic speaking King Macbeth was killed during an English invasion by Malcolm III (son of Duncan I).
- 1066 Guillaume le Bâtard conquered England, brought over hundreds of Jews for financial reasons, and instituted a feudal system.
- 1218 England became the first European nation to require Jews to wear a marking badge.
- 1241 Moguls attacked Poland and other Baltic states. "Mongul campaigns may have resulted in the deaths of 40 million people."
- 1282 - 1307 Edward I conquered Wales and Scotland, confiscated the Scottish coronation stone, and expelled Jews.
- 1297 William Wallace led the Scottish war of Independence.
- 1305 William_Wallace was betrayed, delivered to Edward I, stripped naked and dragged through London at the heels of a horse, strangled by hanging but released while he was still alive, castrated, eviscerated and his bowels burnt before him, beheaded, then cut into parts that were displayed separately in various parts of England.
- 1306 Robert the Bruce was crowned King.
- 1314 Battle_of_Bannockburn - Robert the Bruce defeated the English and gained Scottish independence.
- 1349 - 1666 Bubonic plague ravaged Britain.
- 1371 The first Stewart King, Robert II, took the throne.
- 1387 Northern Crusaders imposed Catholicism on Lithuania (the largest state in Europe at that time).
- 1513 James IV was killed at the Battle of Flodden.
- 1535 England annexed Wales.
- 1559 The Reformation in Scotland began with John Knox's sermon at Perth: "Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation..." His mobs destroyed all but a few of Scotland's royal tombs.
- 1561 Mary Queen of Scots returned to Scotland from France.
- 1567 Mary Queen of Scots's second husband Henry Stuart, a.k.a. "Lord Darnley", was murdered.
- 1568 Elizabeth I imprisoned Mary Queen of Scots after she fled to England.
- 1587 Elizabeth I had Mary Queen of Scots beheaded at Fotheringay Castle (later demolished by her grandson despite its size and importance).
- 1600 Catholics incinerated Giordano Bruno for proposing that the sun is a star, and that intelligent beings populate other worlds.
- 1603 Mary's Presbyterian son James VI of Scotland became James I of England and united the Crowns.
- 1607 The first permanent English settlement in what is now the USA was named after King James I of England.
- 1633 Catholics silenced and incarcerated Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642) for writing that the earth orbits the sun.
- 1642–1651 English Civil War(s) and video about Oliver Cromwell.
- 1649 Parliament beheaded Charles I.
- 1656 Oliver Cromwell invited Jews to England for financial reasons despite the laws and the opposition of the clergy and merchants.
- 1657 England annexed Scotland.
- 1683 The Battle of Vienna thwarted the expansion of the Islamic Empire into Europe.
- 1688 Jews helped William III depose James II of England, and transferred Europe's financial center from Amsterdam to London.
- 1692 Massacre of Glencoe - The Campbells massacred the MacDonald clan.
- 1707 Threatened with trade sanctions, etc. and contrary to the wishes of the deposed monarch and the Scottish people, Scotland became part of the English Empire. "We were bought and sold for English Gold." Robert Burns.
- 1746 Battle of Culloden - Jews helped to defeat the Jacobite Scots - Charles Edward Stuart fled to France.
- 1776 Thirteen North American colonies seceded from the English Empire.
- 1800 Ireland became part of the English Empire, achieved in part according to contemporary documents through bribery.
- 1815 Napoléon lost the Battle of Waterloo.
- 1819 The Strathnaver Clearances began on the Sutherland estates - families were given 30 minutes to remove their belongings before their cottages were set on fire.
- 1845-52 Irish Potato Famine. Millions of Irish starved or emigrated elsewhere.
- 1861 South Carolina's plutocratic government attacked Fort Sumpter and began a fratricidal war that killed a quarter of its males and half of its enlisted men (less than 5% of whom were slave owners).
- 19th century Inquisition and Witch Trials ended.
- 1914 England declared war on Germany.
- 1919 Ireland seceded from the English Empire.
- 1939 Polish occupation of German territory ends. Reds conquers Poland. England declares war again.
- 1945 An eye for an eye and an eye and so forth.
- 1956 "... Scotland is the only European country which has no history of state persecution of Jews." Jewish-Scottish scholar David Daiches.
- 1999 Scottish Parliament held session for the first time since its adjournment in 1707.
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President and CEO Bennett Greenspan founded Family Tree DNA in 1999.
We believe the first step to unearthing your personal and family history is to better understand your DNA. That's why we are continuously investing in new technology and experienced scientists at our Genomics Research Center, enabling us to conduct tests more accurately and efficiently.
Bennett Greenspan quoted in April 2013.
We Thank President Greenspan & Team For FTDNA's Excellent Service and Products!
FTDNA is a division of www.genebygene.com. Click here to see its news and Facebook web pages. It is the world leader in genetic genealogy, and was the first company to develop the commercial application of DNA testing for genealogical purposes.
"The accessibility and affordability of family DNA testing is doubtless the greatest technical advance in the history of genealogical research because -- at long, long last -- we have a tool to break down those brick walls!" Matthiesen
The Exciting Future of Genetic Genealogy
- Learn more about this topic and FTDNA President Bennett Greenspan via this video (which begins with an advertisement)
- Whole-genome sequences from diverse populations will soon help us to improve estimates of the historical relationships among major human groups, including population sizes, divergence times and migration rates, and to decipher human history at an unprecedented resolution.
- FTDNA charges $6,995 (consumables cost $5000) for full genome sequencing (6 billion base pairs). A full Y chromosome test (plus full mitochondrial and 356 STR markers so far) now costs $1,250 (FTDNA's Big Y test usually costs $695). If the chemicals become less expensive, these tests may become common place and help genetic genealogists to determine exactly how all descendants of the High Stewards of Scotland are related to each other.
An Educational Gift
The history of our ancestors is written in our genes. Correctly interpreted, it is the greatest story ever told. No forensic evidence is more scientific and trustworthy than the results of a DNA test.
The results of your DNA tests are a gift to all of your cousins, etc. Families and nations that are aware and proud of their ancestry and history, e.g. the Israelites, are more likely to nourish and educate their children well enough for them to become intelligent adults who respect each other and their ethnic boundaries and identity, pass their genes on to the next generation, and contribute to the security, prosperity, survival and scientific and technological progress of their nation.
Israelite Lisa Alcalay Klug wrote: "... I can only be encouraged that perhaps we are seeing the dawn of a new age for our people, an age of greater self-awareness and pride. For me, this means delving even deeper into my heritage in an effort to understand not only who I am, but for what purpose I exist. The meaning of my life certainly is rooted in this rich and fertile ground." Similar feelings may have motivated the founders of 23ANDME and FTDNA.
"Down almost to within the memory of living men, education, even in its most rudimentary form, was a felony in Ireland, on the correct principle that the most effective method of subjugating and despoiling a people is to keep them in enforced ignorance."
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