MtDNA Haplogroup I Project
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Your mtDNA sequence is an heirloom that was passed down to you, generation by generation, in an unbroken chain of maternal ancestors (mother to daughter) for thousands of years. Along the way, out of 16,500+ base pairs in the mtDNA sequence, a small set of rare and random changes (mutations) accumulated over myriad generations. In each lineage, as these mutations occurred, they were passed down to subsequent generations, creating patterns in the mtDNA sequences, which spread as groups migrated from region to region. These patterns are recognizable and have been classified into branches called haplogroups, clades, and subclades.
Approximately 23,500 years ago (plus or minus ~ 4,000 years), a certain woman -- now known as Iris -- became the clan mother of mtDNA Haplogroup I. Everyone who belongs to Haplogroup I is a descendant of Iris through a solid line of daughters...our direct maternal ancestors.
The defining motif (or set of mutational differences) for Haplogroup I is: T10034C / G16129A. Over thousands of years, as additional rare genetic changes accumulated in the mtDNA of Iris' descendants, a number of separate branches developed, and each branch (or clade) went on to develop its own set of subclades.
The following subclades of mtDNA Haplogroup I have been discovered so far:
I1 -- Subclades: I1, I1a, I1a1, I1a1a, I1a1b, I1a1c, I1a1d, I1b, I1c
I2'3 -- Subclades: I2, I2a, I2a1, I2b, I2c, I2d, I2e // I3, I3a, I3a1, I3b
I2, I2a, I2a1, I2b, I2c, I2d, I2e 12
I4 -- Subclade: I4a
I5 -- Subclades: I5a, I5a1, I5a2, I5a3
I6 -- Subclades: I6a, I6b
For subclade designations, we use the official human mtDNA tree known as the PhyloTree,1 found at this site: http://www.PhyloTree.org.
On the home page, click on the link for "Build 15," which is the current version of the tree. This will take you to the beginning of the chart. Since haplogroup I is a subgroup of macro-haplogroup N, click on the letter N at the bottom of the page. You will then find haplogroup I on this new page, approximately ten inches down from the top. There you will find the defining motif (set of mutational differences) for each subclade.
Many subclades are defined by mutations in the coding region of the mtDNA. (The coding region includes the majority of the mtDNA sequence and is included in the full-sequence test or 'Mega upgrade' test.) When you initially join this project -- and periodically, thereafter, as the structure of the haplogroup grows -- we will place you in the most refined subclade that we can. To do this, it often helps (or is necessary) to know your coding region mutations. However, default settings in your account block project administrators from seeing them. In order to better evaluate your results (for subclade assignment - finding potential new subclades - and comparison of close matches, etc.), it would help if you would adjust the settings on your FTDNA page to allow project administrators to privately view them. To change this setting:
(1) Log onto your My FTDNA page.
(2) Click on "My Account."
(3) In the drop-down menu, select "Results Display Settings."
(4) Then, for the project labeled as " I " -- please click on the circle to indicate "Yes" for "Show My mtDNA Coding Region Mutations to Administrators of these Projects."
(5) Save your new setting(s).
Additional Haplogroup I test results, together with some genealogical information, can be found by doing a search on Haplogroup I at http://www.Mitosearch.org. Please be sure to upload your results to Mitosearch, which you can do from your mtDNA Matches page at FTDNA. (Note: MitoSearch tends to give error messages that make it appear as though an account set-up failed, when, in fact, it was successful.) If you have had full-sequence testing, you will find an option on your personal mtDNA Results' page to upload the data to the new MtDNA Community site, http://www.mtdnacommunity.org/. (Both MitoSearch and MtDNA Community are hosted by FTDNA.) If you need assistance setting up these accounts, let us know.
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1 vanOven M, Kayser M. 2009. Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global humanmitochondrial DNA variation. Hum Mutat 30(2):E386-E394.http://www.phylotree.org.doi:10.1002/humu.20