Little Scottish Cluster- Background
Adams, Akin, Benjamin, Boggs, Bogle, Brown, Carlton, Chambers, Clements, Colson, Crockett, Curren, Doig, Ewen, Ewing, Ferguson, Gilbert, Gilmore, Hall, Hamilton, Henry, Hinds, Hudson, Johnson, Keeney, Kilgore, Lamond, Land, Livingstone, McArthur, McClain, McClaren, McCorkle, McHenry, McKeich, McLaren, McLean, Mitchell, Morrison, Munro, Nelson, Norris, Ray, Reddin, Reid, Savage, Shaw, Sloan, Stark, Taylor, Thompson, Walker, Walters, Williamson, Wilson
The Little Scottish Cluster is a group of R-L21 men who share a recent common ancestor. Age estimates for this group generally range from 1000 to 1500 years -- well before the adoption of surnames. As such there are a wide variety of surnames in the project. The majority of men in this group, but not all, trace their ancestry to southern Scotland, where their common ancestor is believed to have lived.
The haplotype of the common ancestor (the LSC ancestral haplotype) has been passed down, father to son, for all of the men in the project. This is the key to identifying men who belong to this cluster, or any other STR cluster. Any unusual characteristics of the ancestor's haplotype are passed down, almost exactly, to his male descendants. By examining our own haplotypes for these unusual characteristics, we can determine if we are likely a Little Scottish Cluster descendant or not.
There is another cluster of men known as the Scots Cluster, which currently does not have a specific FTDNA project. They are a much larger group of men, with a very different haplotype. Currently, men who match the Scots cluster modal should consider joining the Scottish DNA project, or the R-L21 plus project.
Within the first 25 markers, the most distinguishing feature is the odd value of DYS464a = 13. Another group, Irish Type III, also share this feature, but differ on other markers. The most distinguishing marker overall is DYS 590, for which the members of the LSC have the value 9, rather than the common value 8. This marker is only in the 67 and 111-marker tests.
The table below gives the full set of characteristic markers, as well as the common R-L21 value.
|Marker||Typical R-L21 value||Typical cluster value(s)|
Group members tend to be different from the modal R1b values for the above markers. For DYS 464, X tends to take on the values 13,16,17 or 18.
There are several Little Scottish Cluster modal haplotypes on ySearch, but there by various researches for a number of purposes:
- KXNRA - Maintained by Kirsten Saxe - The full 67-marker Little Scottish Cluster modal haplotype.
- U8HJZ - Maintained by Kirsten Saxe - The 37-marker version of the Little Scottish Cluster modal haplotype.
- RRC7B - Maintained by Steve Colson - Used as a research tool to explore possible LSC connections.
There are several SNPs of relevance to the LSC. In order of age, oldest to youngest, they are L21, DF21, S424 and S190.
- L21 is the most downstream SNP currently on the Y tree that FTDNA uses. In FTDNA notation, it corresponds to the haplogroup R1b1a2a1a1b4. All men in the LSC would test positive for this SNP, if they were to test for it.
- DF21 is a SNP downstream of L21. This means that all DF21+ men are also L21+, but not vice-versa. This is the most downstream SNP, relevant to LSC men, that can be tested for at FTDNA. Once you've tested positive for this SNP, there are currently no other SNP tests you should order. All LSC men would test positive for this SNP.
- S424 is a SNP downstream of DF21. Currently, this SNP can only be tested for by ScotlandsDNA, and not FTDNA. All men in the LSC that have tested for this SNP, have so far tested positive for it.
- S190. Depending on how you wish to define the LSC, this SNP can either be viewed as defining it, or splitting it. With the notable exception of Reddin, all other LSC men who have tested for this SNP, have tested positive for it. Reddin belongs on a small branch parallel to the primary LSC cluster. His haplotype however, is still very much LSC like, including the marker DYS590 = 9. Some people have referred to Reddin as a Little Scottish Cousin. Like S424, this SNP can currently only be tested for at ScotlandsDNA.
Further analysis and background information can be found at the Little Scottish Cluster webpage.