Who Were the First Farmers?
This web page proposes that the ancestors of Northern Europeans, e.g., Celts, were the first farmers, and that they may have begun to emigrate from the Sahel to the Fertile Crescent during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and into Europe after the end of the last glacial period.
Balaresque et al. state: "The relative contributions to modern European populations of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers from the Near East have been intensely debated. Haplogroup R1b1b2 (R-M269) is the commonest European Y-chromosomal lineage, increasing in frequency from east to west, and carried by 110 million European men... The distribution of this lineage, the diversity within it, and estimates of its age all suggest that it spread with farming from the Near East. Taken with evidence on the origins of other lineages, this indicates that most European Y chromosomes descend from Near Eastern farmers... Previous studies suggested a Paleolithic origin, but here we show that the geographical distribution of its microsatellite diversity is best explained by spread from a single source in the Near East via Anatolia during the Neolithic ... in contrast, most maternal lineages descend from hunter-gatherers ..." i.e. most Europeans have Crô-Magnon mitochondrial DNA.
According to this Wikipedia article about haplogroup (HG) R1b1a2 (a.k.a. R-M269), "the distribution of R1b STR variance in Europe forms a cline from east to west, which is more consistent with an entry into Europe from Western Asia with the spread of farming... "The frequency is about 71% in Scotland, 70% in Spain and 60% in France. In south-eastern England the frequency of this clade is about 70%; in parts of the rest of north and western England, Spain, Portugal, Wales and Ireland, it is as high as 90%; and in parts of north-western Ireland it reaches 98%."
Image # 9 above from a 1350 BC seal shows gangly Fertile Crescent farmers with the physical characteristics of Northern Europeans, not those of Crô-Magnon hunter-gatherers and Semitic herdsmen. If you want more evidence, click on the picture and read the book from which it came. The oval in the sky symbolizes the moon, which regulated plantings. The cross represents the Sun, a Celtic symbol for Life and God (Abrahamic faiths repurposed Celtic holidays too, e.g., Easter).
We inherit our mitochondrial (mtDNA) only from our matrilineal ancestors. "... the immigrant Neolithic component is likely to comprise less than one-quarter of the mtDNA pool of modern Europeans". The R1b1 farmers who contributed to the aforesaid "immigrant Neolithic component" belonged to mtDNA haplogroups J and T, etc. before herdsmen drove them from the Fertile Crescent into their present Indo-European homelands in Europe and Central Asia (e.g., the Pontic-Caspian steppe and Scythia). HG T is currently found with high concentrations in northwestern Europe, e.g., around the eastern Baltic Sea).
Haplogroups T and J descend from JT, pre-JT, R (89% of Europeans), N, L3, L1-6, and L, i.e., "Mitochondrial Eve". SNP mutations occurred in the matrilineal lineage of women who belong to MtDNA haplogroup T at an average rate of once every 20 or 25 thousand years if the mutation known as L occurred between 150–200 KY ago). At this rate the mutation called JT may have occurred about 40-50 KY ago. The mutation called T may have occurred 20-25 KY ago, i.e., during the LGM.
Droughts, starvation, marauding shepherds, etc. motivate fur or wool clad Neolithic farmers to adopt a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and to immigrate from the Fertile Crescent into the abandoned forests of northern Europe about the time that the LGM ended and the Holocene began. The reason that the descendants of the Neolithic farmers who settled in Scandinavia look different from those that settled in southern Europe is that the LGM drove the mixed descendants of Crô-Magnons and Neanderthals out of northern Europe.
The well armed and organized southern European farmers who immigrated from the Fertile Crescent after southern Europe warmed up enough for farming settled near the Mediterranean, e.g., in Ancient Greece. Since these Neolithic farmers took the land and women of the descendants of Crô-Magnons and Neanderthals, their descendants inherited the natives' adaptations to the cold and dark forests of Ice Age Europe, i.e., squatty and hairy bodies, brachycephalic heads, and brown hair and olive skin that absorbs the heat of the sun and provides better camouflage in a forest.
According to Geno 2.0 and this PBS video, Southern Europeans ("the Mediterranean component"?) have more Neanderthal DNA than Northern Europeans, and the bulky Neanderthals had blue eyes and fair skin and hair. Should Northern Europeans therefore be less likely than Southern Europeans to have blue eyes? Does Spencer Wells know that the last Neanderthal died about 30 KY ago (before the mutation(s) that causes blue eyes occurred)?
Northern Europeans have less Neanderthal DNA because their Neolithic ancestors did not enter Europe until nearly 20 KY after the last Neanderthal died. Southern Europeans have more Neanderthal DNA because their Crô-Magnon ancestors began to mate with the Neanderthals they had not eaten before the LGM racially cleansed Northern Europe.
Although depicted as blue-eyed and fair-skinned by media propagandists, the need for camouflage and to absorb and preserve heat must have caused the cold adapted pure-blooded Crô-Magnons to have skins that were darker and hairier than those of the people of southern Italy today. The blue blood farmers that settled in southern Europe cleared land for their crops with the help of Crô-Magnon labor. Their mixed descendants became the race whose less civilized behavior caused the decline of the Greek and Roman Empires.
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or down to read about Gobero.
Why Did Neolithic Farmers Invade Europe?
Linguistic evidence shows that farmers who spoke Indo-European languages had an aristocracy and priests, and lived in an environment like pre-historic Palestine's, where farmers had stone and metal tools, dogs, ducks, geese, goats, pigs and later horses, plowed with oxen, and cultivated grains like barley, wheat, oats, etc. (which grew wild there).
Image # 7 - All Indo-European languages and the first farmers came from this area. The places where Kassite Babylonia, Hamitic Egypt, Mitanni and Hatti used to be are linquistically, religiously, and demographically different from what they once were.
The Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype (M269, R1b1a2) is still frequent in southwest Asia. If Hyksos, etc. herdsmen from the Arabian subcontinent had not routed, enslaved, exterminated and supplanted so much of its indigenous population, would the nations of the Fertile Crescent still have Indo-European religions, speak Indo-Hittite languages and look more like the Irish (81.5% R1b) and Scots (77.1% R1b, 11.2% I)?
"Historically nomadic herder lifestyles have led to warrior-based cultures that have made them fearsome enemies of settled people." "Some nomadic peoples, especially herders, may also move to raid settled communities ..." "This lifestyle ... is possibly associated with the appearance of Semitic languages in the region of the Ancient Near East." "The nomadic lifestyle was well suited to warfare, and the steppe horse riders became some of the most militarily potent peoples in the world".
According to the Jewish historian Josephus and the Judeo-Christian Bible, hundreds of thousands of Hebrew nomads from the Sumerian city of Ur of the Chaldees were expelled from Egypt by Ahmose I (died ~1557 BC). These Hebrew shepherds conquered the Jebusite Amorites of Jerusalem about 1000 BC. "The land of the Aryans" (a.k.a. Iran) conquered Babylon and allowed Hebrews to return to Jerusalem circa 538 BC.
Hyksos herdsmen may have looked like the current population of the Fertile Crescent, e.g., Yemenite (82.3% J and 16.2% E1b1b) and Israeli Arabs (55.2% J, 20.3% E1b1b, and 16.1% R & I). Semites emigrated from eastern Africa to the southern Arabian peninsula by crossing the Red Sea according to Spencer Wells. Is their skin color darker because their ancestors evolved for so long in the forests of Ethiopia (see the map below)? Many Europeans, e.g., Napoléon and Hitler, Semites like Einstein, and most of the people of north Africa and the Sahel belong to Y-haplogroup E1b1b.
Image # 8 - HG J is found in greatest concentration in the Southwestern Arabian Peninsula.
The Unger's Bible Dictionary (1957) explanation of why Phoenicians are considered Semitic by anthropologists and ethnologists is that Phoenicians "must have succumbed to the pressure of racial and linguistic intermixture with Semites with the loss of their own ethnic predominance " because Canaan "was like a bridge between Egypt and great Semitic empires". Are the Amorites and other Hamitic farming nations of Canaan called Semitic despite genetic, biblical, etc. evidence to the contrary because their Indo-Hittite speaking ancestors had to adopt a Semitic written language?
Semites contributed relatively little DNA to the gene pools of the parts of Eurasia and northern Africa that they conquered during the seventh century in the name of Islam, an Abrahamic religion.
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Why Did Neolithic Civilization Begin?
During the LGM survival was difficult in northern Europe due to the cold, and in the Sahel because of drought (the colder the oceans became the less evaporation and rainfall there was). The only part of Central Africa where Sahelians could survive the LGM may have been near lakes, e.g., Lake Chad. Hungry Sahelians who belonged to patrilineal haplogroups I and R1b1 attempted to walk across the vast Sahara via the Nile valley because they were outnumbered by people who lived in Africa's equatorial rain forests.
Hunter gatherers from the central Sahel who made it across the Sahara during the LGM crossed the Sinai penninsula and continued their search for a better homeland in Eurasia. They were so outnumbered that they had to avoid the territorial Crô-Magnons who lived in Europe to the west and the Mongoloids who lived in Asia to the east. Those that became the ancestors of aboriginal R1b1 Americans and Kennewick Man traveled so far northeastwards in search of game during a spell of unusually mild weather that they fortuitously became the first non-Neanderthal people to cross the Bering Strait. See Image # 14 below.
Some hunter gatherers from the central Sahel who belonged to patrilineal haplogroups I and R1b1 remain stranded in the game poor forests of the arid Levant because races that had left Africa tens of thousands of years earlier outnumbered them elsewhere.
E.g., Mongoloids left the Sahel about 70,000 years ago (during an earlier stadial) and conquered the habitable parts of Eastern Asia. At that time Neanderthals had occupied Europe for hundreds of thousands of years and were too numerous to conquer. For Mongoloids to drive Australoids who had been devastated by a supervolcanic eruption to the fringes of Asia was easier.
Some hunter gatherers who belonged to haplogroups I and R1b1 remained in the Levant and began the Kebaran culture about 18,000 BC (not long after the R1b1 and I mutations occurred). There was so little game in the Fertile Crescent that in order to feed their hungry children mothers had to painstakingly harvest by hand the seeds of the native grasses, e.g., barley and wheat, that grew wild there. Domesticating the plants, people and other animals that made the Natufian culture possible took Hamites thousands of years.
Image # 2 shows the spread of Natufian culture.
Each patrilineal clan, clade or HG from the Sahel settled in a different part of the forests of Lebanon, live for thousands of years in relative peace within the secure boundaries of its own independent territory, and became one of about thirteen independent nations that spoke its own version of the Indo-Hittite language. These HG R1b1 and I farmers belong to about thirteen ill-fated Hamitic nations (the cursed children of Ham according to the Judeo-Christian Bible). Most of these Neolithic farmers eventually fled from the Fertile Crescent because herdsmen, e.g., the Semitic Hyksos, terrorized, preyed upon and eventually conquered, enslaved and forced them to adopt Semitic languages. Does this explain why some scientists, Wikipedia and others misrepresent them as being Semitic? Some of these farmers adopted a hunter gatherer lifestyle and spread via demic diffusion into the forests of northern Europe about ten KYA (Thousand Years Ago) in order to avoid both droughts and herdsmen.
Domesticated farmers could not settle on the grassy steppes of Central Asia and compete with savages like Ghengis Khan until they had better weapons. Herdsmen plagued farmers until they found refuge in the forests of Eurasia (cattle starve in a forest).
The land and investments of farmers must be secure in order for them to grow crops of wheat and barley for their hungry children to eat. Their civilization could not have begun or survived in an area dominated by herdsmen, e.g., Central Asia and the Arabian pennisula. Farmers would rather adopt a nomadic lifestyle than to allow their families to be regularly raided, robbed, raped, murdered and terrorized by herdsmen on horseback.
After its part of the Fertile Crescent was conquered by herdsmen each civilized nation settled in a different part of Eurasia. Southern Europe warmed enough for farming first. Neolithic farmers occupied all of Eurasia except the homelands of the Mongoloid nations after they developed the weapons they needed to defend themselves.
Image # 3 above shows the location of each branch of the Indo-European language, and the diaspora of the terrorized Fertile Crescent farmers who fled in their ox drawn wagons to the verdant parts of non-Mongoloid Eurasia (the LGM had depopulated most of it). Farmers who were less familiar with the vast Sahara desert than Sahelians, and who knew nothing about what lay to the south of it, would not have risked the lives of their families by trying to migrate back to the overpopulated Sahel and rain forests of equatorial Africa.
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