Goals and Guidelines
The basic goal of the Jackson Group is to create a database of as many Jackson males as possible, in the hope of finding matches among the samples. This should be particularly helpful for those who trace their ancestry to the time of the 1850 census and can go no futher back. Finding others who have also tested and match your Haplogroup and haplotype unique markers can give you a possible distant cousin who may know more about your own line and open futher possibilities for further research.
About ten percent of the men tested will find that the surname they have been raised with is genetically different. A member raised as a Jackson may match a different surname or a man may have a name different from Jackson but may be a genetic match to Jackson. The reasons for this usually surprising information are many but DNA can help a member begin to sort things out.
What are the odds???
A note from Kyle Atkins:
"If you have a 36/37 Y-DNA match you should pay attention to it. At 25 years per generation, probability says you likely have a common ancestor circa 1800. Ignoring the fact that probability also allows the improbable half of the time, here is the logic: The odds of having one mutation in 37 markers is 6% to 7% every generation. In about 16 generations the total odds approach 100% of having one mutation. BUT! When you consider that you are comparing TWO genetic lines, that is only 8 generations in each (about 200 years) back to a common ancestor.
"My experience as a DNA Administrator suggests that 10 to 20 % of all men who test, actually have DNA of a different surname. It stands to reason if the adoption/illegitimacy rate is say, 2% per generation, then in the genealogical timeframe of 10 generations you have total of 20 % odds."
DO NOT DISCOUNT THE IMPORTANCE OF THE DIFFERENT SURNAME. The following examples came to light in 2006 on the following Jackson Groups who have found a common ancestor, and are shown within our RESULTS page:
#1 – The CHURCHWELL JACKSON GROUP members now have members with three DIFFERENT SURNAMES, two of which matching with 2 and 3 Genetic Distance results. – Both of these new members live in CANADA (one testee resides in England) with their most distant ancestor being from SCOTLAND AND SHELTON. It has come to light that the grandfather of one member gave information that their surname was changed due to an uprising evolving into a serious religious violence in Scotland, which in turned caused our member to do the DNA testing. He MATCHED the Jackson surname with a genetic distance of 2 (Not bad, not bad at all – in fact GREAT NEWS!) Upon researching this family lore, it has been found that indeed, during the late 1600s to mid 1700s, there was such a violence between the Royals (Catholic) and residents (mainly early Presbyterians) – Many, many of our early Jacksons came from Scandinavian countries, migrating into Scotland, Shelton, Ireland and the entire UK. This may not concern all, but it is well worth not ignoring that different surnames, as well as brush up the early social, political, and geographical history of your origin.
#2 – The JACKSON/WILSON GROUP & UNK COMMON “K” GROUP – Another member reported recognizing important geographical information given (with this member also matching a different surname as well as his Jackson surname, as being the same as that of his great grandmother Jackson – In doing additional research, he found the lineage (within the Jackson/Wilson Group being that of his great grandmother, thus finding a DIRECT link to his gggg grandparents!
The importance: Update your Ancestral information giving dates, city/county/state for others to check out – YOU NEVER KNOW WHAT YOU MAY DISCOVER if you check out other entries within our Jackson Project website beside those within your own group, even if you do not have a Y-DNA match of the other entries!
OTHER POSSIBLE REASONS FOR MATCHING ANOTHER SURNAME:
#1 – CHANGE OF SURNAME: During the Civil War, it is known that one JACKSON (and his twin) fought with the CSA. One twin went AWOL- went over to the UNION side, changed his surname name, kept his first and middle names, and fought on the opposing side. After the war was over, he filed for Pension from both the CSA & Union, and received benefits (using the same address). He had left a wife in TN (never saw her again, and married another he had met while fighting for the Union. – How was he found? By tracking down suspicious duplicate Pension records, gleaning clues to use on census records.
#2 - PARENTS KILLED BY INDIANS - This infant was the sole survivor during the 1840’s, he was raised by his mother’s sister. In subsequent census records, he shown up as a male within the household with his parents surname, but as other “siblings” became of marriage age, all could be accounted, except this “orphaned infant” having another surname. Upon checking all within county looking for his birth surname, nothing was found – but another male surname was found (same as his Aunt & Uncle) who could not be accounted – It was later found within county records, the “Infant” had changed his surname to that of his Aunt and Uncle (document found that he was raised by his aunt & uncle, but they were the only parents he ever knew, thus using their surname – the court accepted same. This happened in the lower portion of Middle Tennessee. Check out early court records Then too, there is the legal adoption of an infant.
#3 - APPRENTICESHIP or GUARDIANSHIP - Many times in court records, one may find to where close friend of a deceased family is put under guardianship. This child may in turn change their name as they become older to that of the one who raised or trained him/her. Same thing happened to INDENTURED SERVANTS during early times. – Check out census records, when/where they disappear, and/or EARLY court records. This happened in Virginia and New Hampshire. After 1900 adoption status becomes more difficult to confirm, but it is not impossible to verify.
#4 – JACKSON MALE MARRIED WIDOWED FEMALE WITH SMALL CHILD Many times the child’s birth surname is shown on census records (different from the Head of Household), other times only their given names are shown – Always check out marriage records on bride for previous marriage(s). This happened in North Carolina.#8 - CHANGED SURNAME DUE TO: ……….a. Severe Family Squabbles, abuse, divorce with female reverting …………..back to her maiden surname in some instances with children …………..shown under the mother’s maiden family surnace – This happened in …………..Missouri and Tennessee ……….b. “On the Run” from the law (these usually went into Oklahoma Territory …………..or Central Texas during the 1830s and 1840s. One happened in IT (later …………..the state of Oklahoma), the other happened in Texas.#9 - MULTIPLE MARRIAGES Always check for multiple marriages of the male as well as female – male may have had an unknown first marriage, as well as female. Researchers may disagree on marriage with another researcher – this was solved in Tennessee where multiple marriages of the same male having two marriages, each female having a previous marriage.
#5 - MALE HAVING A WIFE as well as A CONSORT – A male marries and raises his family - BUT he couldn’t leave his consort behind. He takes her (his #2, yet unofficial wife) and their children where ever they migrated to another location – the “consort” always living in a separate house, raising their children (their children always carried HER SURNAME) – This was proven by the male’s will leaving her a substantial amount, along with privileges to be buried within the same cemetery with he and his “legal” wife, but to be buried on the other side of him. Her children filed a lawsuit enabling them also to be buried within the same cemetery as their mother, but the children of their father’s legal wife protested. A compromise was reached by a small separate cemetery was provided directly adjacent to the original with a gate being provide access to both, with entrance remaining at the original cemetery.
#6 - VISITS “ACROSS TOWN” - How many children did the male have during the years of his weekly visits to this woman? No one ever knew – the children did not carry the same surname as the father (always used the woman’s surname. His wife was actually grateful for those weekly visits in that she did not have to indulge in that “nasty stuff” (as told by descendants) – She always had his late evening meal ready for him when he returned as well as insisted he provide generously for any children he may have fathered during his frequent visits. - - Then there were the isolated incidents to where “Oops” took place, and the male left the female high and dry, with court record records being filed “BASTARDY BONDS” to where the male was required by the court to provide money to the mother to raise the “unexpected” child – in these instances, the child carried the mother’s surname – Always check census records to where a woman is Head of Household with several children over the decades with no husband (her surname may match your “mismatch” – or Male HH who has grown children with obvious infant within household that stands out – child probably carried name of HH and not the actual father. (daughter’s surname may match your “mismatch”.
#7 - TYPO MISTAKE During the enlistment of World War I, his “hypothetical” name, “Alfred Allen Ward”, was accidentally misspelled to reflect “Alfred Allen ALWARD” – after discharge, he was advised by the military to keep the misspelling because it could affect his benefits. Always check out varied possible spelling of surnames.
NOTABLE JACKSONS “GTT” (Gone To Texas)……..…. Lost an ancestor? – He may have Gone To Texas. The first Federal Census of Texas was enumerated in 1850. Earlier documental records in varied printed form regarding the early settlements of varied colonies and subsequent counties as established.
REMEMBER THE ALAMO: Thomas J. Jackson
an ALAMO DEFENDER arrived in Texas on 6 July 1829 and died March 6, 1836. Initially, Thomas J. Jackson was listed on the Alamo roster as from Ireland (Mexico had closed its borders to U. S. citizens, but would allow “foreigners” or those of the Roman Catholic faith to come in and settle. It is known that Jackson entered Texas with a family of four (wife and 3? Children (other sources indicate they had four children (one born in Texas?) Jackson was one of the “Old Gonzales Eighteen, defenders of he Gonzales cannon in the Battle of Gonzales, and entered the Alamo with the Gonzales Relief Force on March 1, 1836. Jackson, his wife, Louisa Cottle Jackson, Louisa’s parents (Jonathan and Margaret Cottle, and Louisa’s brother, Almond entered Texas from Missouri. It is believed that Jackson gave his Parental Country Origin of Ireland to the Mexican authorities in order for the group to be accepted into the area. He registered his cattle brand in 1830 with the county of Gonzales, and registered for Texas land on May 1, 1831. After Jackson’s death, his wife married James B. Hinds. Some of the Donation Land granted to the Jackson’s heirs was located in Lampasas County, Texas.
William Daniel Jackson
an ALAMO DEFENDER arrived in Texas prior to 1836. As with Thomas J. Jackson above, William Daniel Jackson was listed on the Alamo roster as from Ireland, and according to many, gave his Parental Country Origin of a foreign country, in order to be accepted in Texas by the Mexican authorities. He was a former sailor, a participant in the Seige of Bexar, served with the Alamo garrison possibly as lieutenant of an artillery company. Some feel that Jackson also migrated into Texas from Kentucky as did Thomas J. Jackson.…MEMBERS OF STEPHEN F. AUSTIN’S “Old Three Hundred” Colonists…
Alexander Jackson, Sr.
(1786-1829) was born in Dublin, Ireland and immigrated to the United States with his brother Humphrey Alexander in the early 1800s. The father of these two brothers was supposedly a member of the Irish Parliament, with both brothers actively involved in pre-republic of Texas politics. The 1823 census of the Colorado District gives his family as: wife, and four children. After Jackson died sometime during the year of 1829, his two leagues (over 8,000 acres) were divided amongst his three surviving children.
(1784-1833) was born in Belfast, Ireland where his father owned flower and linen mills, and was supposedly a member of the Irish Parliament (which was dissolved in 1801) Humphrey was educated as a lawyer, and migrated to the United States with his brother Alexander. Humphrey first settled in Louisiana where he operated a sugar plantation, and then serviced with the Louisiana Militia during the Battle of New Orleans in 1815. Humphrey Jackson married a Miss (Unknown) White who died shortly after their marriage. He then married Sarah Merriman. From this union there were four children. Jackson was unable to run his plantation because he did not believe in slavery. He then moved to Texas where he built his cabin outside of Austin’s Colony. When it was discovered his home was outside of the colony, Jackson petitioned the Mexican official, Baron de Bastrop, who on Aug 16, 1824 granted him a league and a labor of land (over 4,000 acres) including he place where he had settled. To become a legal colonist Jackson petitioned the Mexican government to form the San Jacinto District under control of the Austin colony—Jackson was elected Alcalde “Mayor”, of the new district for a number of years, and served as ex officio militia captain of the San Jacitno District. The census of Texas of March 1826 listed him as a farmer and stock raiser, a widower (his 2nd wife died in about 1824) with a household including one servant, three sons, and a daughter.
QUESTIONABLE “NOTABLE” JACKSONS …..Members of Quantrill’s Guerrillas in the Civil War (the pride of the South, the “search & destroy” of the North The following two names being “Notable” depends on whether you take the Confederate or Union Explanation:George Jackson - shown with Quantrill in 1863 John Jackson – killed in 1864 …..TAKING THE OUTLAW TRAIL (before he was 20 yrs. old)Frank Jackson was never spoke about unless in a whisper by relatives living in Central Texas so some of the “oldsters” would never hear you. By the late 1870s Sam Bass was back in Texas starting to rob trains again. The “Sam Bass Gang” was staffed at one time or the other by up to seven other individuals. Some called it quits, one “of the boys” turned informant on him with Frank Jackson remaining his friend to the end. Frank Jackson was the only survivor on their last job, the bank at Round Rock, Texas. During their highlight, they led the Texas Rangers on long chases with narrow escapes, always depending on Bass’ ability to disappear and then suddenly surface in an area only to disappear again at the first sign of trouble. Frank Jackson was about twenty years old when they rode into Round Rock (with the Rangers waiting for them). All were killed or wounded except for Frank who helped Sam stay in his saddle while they escaped the area. Sam, being too weak to continue, persuaded Frank Jackson to leave him. He did, but stayed out of sight until Sam was found dead by the Rangers propped up against a tree, and carried back to Round Rock. Many accounts of what became of Frank Jackson after he left Round Rock have been told – some believed he headed back to Denton for a few days, other accounts having him becoming a prosperous West Texas rancher, one Ranger claimed he saw him in the Arizona State Prison using a different name, others say he lived out his life on a ranch in New Mexico. What really happen to Frank Jackson? He went back home located in the Central Texas area. Many of his kin would have nothing to do with him. Frank married and moved a few miles north where a several cabins had been built (this little spawn of a settlement had a population of a little over 400 by the year 2000). He lived a quiet farmer’s life, never went into the larger settlement some ten miles away, died and buried along side his wife in a well kept cemetery in the little town in which he settled and raised his family. What happened to the money taken at Round Rock? No one knows (a close relative is suspect), except it is known that some was given to his father and buried. When the father was killed, other surviving kin suspected the gold was buried somewhere on the old home place, but it was never found. Frank was a descendant of the Joshua Moses Jackson who was massacred on the Pecan Bayou which runs through several counties within the Central Texas area. There were only four survivors of this massacre: two sons who were left at home not going on the outing to gather pecans and cut timber, a daughter and another son who had been captured by the Indians, later rescued by the Rangers.
Granny’s HELPFUL & UNUSUAL RESEARCH TIPS….. Census Records: 1.Free Person of Color – DO NOT disregard – that is a good indication of Native American ancestry of himself or his wife. Slaves during this time period were carried separately and only by the number of slaves the HH owned. (Your ancestor’s known brother, may have been shown as Free White Person within the same enumeration) - - You have most likely found Native American within your family line. Who? How did you reach your conclusion? This will most likely lead you to the Indian Rolls. Indian Rolls 1.Many of these Rolls are online to where they can be researched. Most importantly, some are in print (Many of you are already familiar with these sources. Those who have never delved into such……Check with your local library. What is often OVERLOOKED or one is unaware of this wonderful resource of information….. those Application which were REJECTED. Applicants were not rejected because of lack of Native American blood, but rejected because the person they were claiming had not registered within the allotted time frame. The Rejected Applications have the same family information, listing both paternal and maternal parents, name of person with whom they are claiming, where they lived and settled, as well as a complete listing of their siblings. All Native American records are maintained within the Federal Archives branch located in Fort Worth, Texas.Marriage Records: 1.Always write for Marriage Certificates – MANY times the Bride and Groom failed to pick up their “Formal Certificate.” The Court clerk just might send it to you with a letter stating: We though you would like to have the original than a copy. 2.You have Bible Records that give your ancestor’s married on such and such date in such and such County and State – You find out that it is not on record. Request or visit the Court House for Marriage Records